LICHENS

P.A. Gainey

Cornwall has a large number of lichen species. Some 750 plus species have been recorded since 1970, and this number continues to rise. A visit by the British Lichen Society in 1987 recorded in excess of 385 taxa on the Lizard Peninsula alone. The reasons for such a diverse lichen flora are complex and interacting; the diversity of habitat, the complex geology and varied pedology. The geographical position and the climate, together with the close proximity of the sea, which provides warmth and moisture, and the exceptional purity of the air, all play a part. The ancient woodlands (especially Boconnoc, Dizzard, Lanhydrock, and Trebartha Woods), the long coastline and many headlands, especially the Lizard Peninsula, contain a large percentage of the rarer species. More recently Cornwall’s metalliferous mining sites have revealed a large number of interesting, rare and nationally scarce species. The list below indicates those species thought to be eligible for inclusion in the Cornish Red Data Book, their conservation status being assessed by reference to Woods and Coppins (2003). Names are as those given in the checklist of Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland Coppins (2002). Other works frequently referred to include Purvis et al. (1992), Dobson (2000), Seaward (1995 – 2001), Benfield (2001) and Woods (2003) for the national perspective; of particular use for the local picture have been the accounts of the field meetings organised by the British Lichen Society – Gilbert and James (1987) and Lambley (2004); surveys of Cornish woodlands for English Nature by Rose (1994); old mine spoil tips by Giavarini (2002) and various surveys for The National Trust and others by Benfield (2000 – 2008) and Davey (2000).

I am grateful to the late Dr. Francis Rose for helpful comments on the species listed here and also to the late Dr. Oliver Gilbert for information on the current distribution of various lichens in Britain. Particular thanks go to Mr Bryan Edwards for his very useful comments and provision of records from various survey reports for The National Trust, Natural England and Plantlife, on the Lizard Peninsula, Isles of Scilly, Pentire and Com Head area and West Penwith.

Also included in the list below are lichenicolous fungi (indicated by #) i.e. fungi that belong to genera that contain lichenised species, or which have traditionally been treated in lichen lists, and non-lichenised fungi (indicated by ##) which have several morphological or ecological characteristics of lichens, and have, once again, been traditionally treated as lichens.

1. Nationally Rare - Critically Endangered

Cladonia mediterranea

Heterodermia speciosa

Parmotrema robustum

Pseudocyphellaria aurata Gilt-edged Lichen

Teloschistes chrysopthalmus

2. Nationally Rare – Endangered

Arthonia anglica

Fulgensia fulgens Scrambled-egg Lichen

Heterodermia leucomela Ciliate Strap Lichen

Pertusaria melanochlora

3. Nationally Rare – Vulnerable

Acarospora subrufula

Anaptychia ciliaris subsp. ciliaris

Bacidia incompta

Caloplaca aractina

Catillaria subviridis

Collema latzelii

Graphina pauciloculata

Lecanora strobilina

Lecidea erythrophaea

Lecidea sarcogynoides

Parmelinopsis minarum New Forest Parmelia

Porina sudetica

Ramalina chondrina

Solenopsora liparina Serpentine Solenopsora

Usnea madeirensis

Usnea subscabrosa

Xanthoparmelia tinctina

4. Nationally Rare – Near Threatened

Arthonia atlantica

Arthonia invadens

Arthonia zwackhii

Blarneya hibernica

Buellia excelsa

Byssoloma subdiscordans

Catillaria aphana

Enterographa sorediata

Gyalidea fritzei

Melaspilea lentiginosa

Nephroma tangeriense

Opegrapha areniseda

Pertusaria pluripuncta

Porina curnowii

Porina hibernica

Pyrenocollema arenisedum

Ramonia dictyospora

Rinodina interpolata

Rinodina roboris var. armeriicola

Syncesia myrticola

Usnea esperantiana

5. Nationally Scarce – Vulnerable

Cryptolechia carneolutea

Lecanactis amylacea

Leptogium cochleatum

Physcia tribacioides Southern Grey Physia

Teloschistes flavicans Golden Hair-lichen

6. Nationally Scarce – Near Threatened

Agonimia octospora

Anaptychia ciliaris subsp. mamillata

Arthonia astroidestera

Catapyrenium pilosellum

Collema nigrescens

Dirina massiliensis forma massiliensis

Gyalecta flotowii

Heterodermia japonica

Lecania chlorotiza

Lecanora handelii

Lecanora horiza

Leptogium corniculatum

Megalospora tuberculosa

Opegrapha prosodea

Parmelia arnoldii

Parmelinopsis horrescens

Phaeographis lyellii

Phlyctis agelaea

Physcia clementei

Placidiopsis custnani

Porina ahlesiana

Porina rosei

Rhizocarpon furfurosum

Roccella fuciformis

Roccella phycopsis

Sarcogyne clavus

Stereocaulon delisei

Wadeana dendrographa

7. Nationally Rare – Data Deficient

Agonimia repleta

Anisomeridium robustum

Arthonia diploiciae

Arthonia intexta

Bacidia assulata

Biatora britannica

Byssoloma leucoblepharum

Caloplaca britannica

Caloplaca sorediella

Dactylospora scapanaria

Endococcus apiciicola

Enterographa pitardii

Fellhanera christiansenii

Fellhanera viridisorediata

Fuscopannaria atlantica

Gyalecta biformis

Gyalecta jenensis var. macrospora

Lecanora ochroidea

Lecidea exigua

Lecidea viridans

Llimonaea sorediata

Micarea farinosa

Plectocarpon lichenum

Polyblastia philaea

Pseudonectria brongniartii

Pyrenocollema pelvetiae

Pyrenocollema subarenisedum

Rhizocarpon infernulum f. infernulum

Rhymbocarpus cruciatus

Rinodina biloculata

Rinodina occulta

Usnea wirthii

8. Nationally Rare – without IUCN Designation

Absconditella celata

Arthrorhaphis muddii

Buellia leptoclinoides

Carbonea intrusa

Carbonea vitellinaria

Chromatochlamys muscorum var. octospora

Coppinsia minutissima

Gregorella humida

Micarea inquinans

Mniaecea nivea

Nectriella amarescens

Pronectria tenuispora

Protoparmelia montagnei


9. Nationally Scarce – Data Deficient

Anisomeridium robustum Orange, Coppins & Aptroot
Cladonia coccifera s. str. (L.) Willd.
# Gelatinopsis ericetorum (Körb.) Rambold & Triebel
Lecidia hypnorum Lib.
Opegrapha viridis (Ach.) Nyl.
Opegrapha xerica Torrente & Egea
Peterjamesia sorediata (Sparrius, P.James & M.A. Allen) D.Hawksw.
Placopsis gelida (L.) Linds.


10. Nationally Scarce – without IUCN Designation

Absconditella delutula (Nyl.) Coppins & H.Kilias
Acarospora veronensis A. Massal.
Acrocordia macrospora A.Massal.
Agonimia gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich
Agonimia globulifera M. Brand & Diederich
Allantoparmelia alpicola (Th.Fr.) Essl.
Amandinea coniops (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
Amandinea lecideina (H. Mayrhofer & Poelt) Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
Arthonia anombrophila Coppins & P. James
# Arthonia apotheciorum (A. Massal.) Almq.
Arthonia endlicheri (Garov.) Oxner
Arthonia leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq.
Arthonia muscigena Th. Fr.
Arthonia phaeobaea (Norman) Norman
Arthonia stellaris Kremp.
# Arthonia varians (Davies) Nyl.
## Arthopyrenia fraxini A. Massal.
Arthopyrenia nitescens (Salwey) Mudd
# Arthroraphis grisea Th.Fr.
Aspicilia epiglypta (Norrl. ex Nyl.) Hue
Aspicilia laevata (Ach.) Arnold
Bacidia carneoglauca (Nyl.) A.L. Sm.
Bacidia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Coppins
Bacidia egenula (Nyl.) Arnold
Bacidia friesiana (Hepp) Körb.
Bacidia trachona (Ach.) Lettau
Bactrospora corticola (Fr.) Almq.
Bryophagus gloeocapsa Nitschke ex Arnold
Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Buellia sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Buellia stellulata (Taylor) Mudd
Byssoloma marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.
Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Müll.Arg.
Caloplaca arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. ex Ginzb.
Caloplaca cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt
Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H.Olivier
Caloplaca littorea Tav.
Caloplaca maritima (de Lesd.) de Lesd.
Caloplaca phlogina (Ach.) Flagey
Caloplaca ulcerosa Coppins & P. James
Catapyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Körb.
Catapyrenium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss
Catillaria atomarioides (Müll. Arg.) H. Kilias
# Cecidonia umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold
# Cecidonia xenophana (Körb.) Triebel & Rambold
Celothelium ischnobelum (Nyl.) M.B. Aguirre
Chaenotheca hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.
Chaenotheca stemonea (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
Cladonia azorica Ahti
Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng.
## Cladonia cryptochlorophaea Asahina
Cladonia firma (Nyl.) Nyl.
Cladonia incrassata Flörke
## Cladonia merochlorophaea Asahina
Cladonia symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr.
## Cyrtidula quercus (A.Massal.) Minks
Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum Vain.
Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vain.
Diplotomma chlorophaeum (Hepp ex Leight.) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh
## Eopyrenula avellanae Coppins
## Eopyrenula grandicula Coppins
Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vezda
Fuscidea praeruptorum (Du Rietz & H. Magn.) V. Wirth & V?zda
Fuscopannaria mediterranea (Tav.) P.M. Jørg.
Graphina ruiziana (Fée) Müll. Arg.
Gyalecta derivata (Nyl.) H. Olivier
Gyalideopsis muscicola P. James & Vezda
Halicania ralfsii (Salwey) & M. Mayrhofer
Herteliana taylorii (Salwey) P. James
Hypotrachyna endochlora (Leight.) Hale
Japewiella tavaresiana (H.Magn.) Printzen
# Lauderlindsaya acroglypta (Norman) R.Sant.
Lecanactis dilleniana (Ach.) Körb.
Lecania aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr.
Lecania atrynoides M.Knowles
Lecania baeomma (Nyl.) P. James & J.R. Laundon
Lecania cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst.
Lecania hutchinsiae (Nyl.) A.L. Sm.
Lecania rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold
Lecanographa grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente
Lecanora andrewii de Lesd.
Lecanora campestris subsp. dolomitica O.L. Gilbert
Lecanora ecorticata J.R. Laundon
Lecanora epanora (Ach.) Ach.
Lecanora persimilis (Th. Fr.) Nyl.
Lecanora praepostera Nyl.
Lecanora sambuci (Pers.) Nyl.
Lecanora stenotropa Nyl.
Lecanora subaurea Zahlbr.
Lecanora subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach.
Lecanora zosterae (Ach.) Nyl.
Lecidea auriculata Th. Fr.
Lecidea confluens (Weber) Ach.
Lecidea diducens Nyl.
Lecidea doliiformis Coppins & P. James
Lecidea fuliginosa Taylor
Lecidella anomaloides (A.Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias
Lecidella meiococca (Nyl.) Leuckert & Hertel
Lempholemma polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme
Lepraria elobata Tønsberg
Lepraria neglecta (Nyl.) Lettau
Lepraria nivalis J.R. Laundon
Leptogium biatorinum (Nyl.) Leight
Leptogium britannicum P.M. Jörg. & P. James
Leptogium coralloideum (Meyen & Flot.) Vain.
Lithographa tesserata (DC.) Nyl.
Macentina stigonemoides Orange
Melaspilea ochrothalamia Nyl.
Micarea coppinsii Tønsberg
Micarea lignaria var. endoleuca (Leight.) Coppins
Micarea prasina s. str. Fr.
Micarea tuberculata (Sommerf.) R.A. Anderson
Moelleropsis nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln.
## Mniaecia jungermanniae (Ness ex Fr.) Boud.
Ochrolechia inversa (Nyl.) J.R. Laundon
Opegrapha corticola Coppins & P. James
Opegrapha demutata Nyl.
Opegrapha lithyrga Ach.
Opegrapha saxigena Taylor
Peltigera neckeri Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
Peltigera polydactylon (Neck.) Hoffm.
Pertusaria chiodectonoides Bagl. ex A. Massal.
Pertusaria coronata (Ach.) Th. Fr.
Pertusaria excludens Nyl.
Pertusaria monogona Nyl.
Phaeographis inusta (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
Phyllopsora rosei Coppins & P. James
Placynthiella dasaea (Stirt.) Tønsberg
Placynthium tantaleum (Hepp) Hue
Polyblastia agraria Th.Fr.
Polychidium muscicola (Sw.) Gray
Porina borreri var. borreri (Trevis.) D. Hawksw. & P. James
Porina coralloidea P. James
Psora lurida (Ach.) DC.
Punctelia ulophylla (Ach.) Herk & Aptroot
Pyrenocollema elegans R.Sant.
Pyrenula laevigata (Pers.) Arnold
Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.
Ramalina portuensis Samp.
Rhizocarpon infernulum f. sylvaticum Fryday
Rhizocarpon viridiatrum (Wulfen) Körb.
Rinodina beccariana Bagl.
Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb.
Rinodina conradii Körb.
Rinodina orculariopsis H. Mayrhofer
Rinodina oxydata (A. Massal.) A. Massal.
Sarcogyne privigna (Ach.) A. Massal.
Sarcosagium campestre var. campestre (Fr.) Poetsch & Schied.
Solenopsora holophaea (Mont.) Samp.
# Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.) De Not.
Steinia geophana (Nyl.) Stein
Sterocaulon leucophaeopsis (Nyl.) P. James & Purvis
Sterocaulon nanodes Tuck.
Sterocaulon vesuvianum var. nodulosum (Wallr.) I.M. Lamb
Strangospora moriformis (Ach.) Stein
Strigula jamesii (Swinscow) R.C. Harris
Strigula taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) R.C. Harris
Thelidium minutulum Körb.
Thrombium epigaeum (Pers.) Wallr.
Toninia mesoidea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Tylothallia biformigera (Leight.) P. James & H. Kilias
Verrucaria amphibia Clemente
Verrucaria funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr.
Verrucaria internigrescens (Nyl.) Erichsen
Verrucaria prominula Nyl.
Vezdaea acicularis Coppins
Vezdaea leprosa (P. James) Vezda
# Vouauxiomyces truncatus (de Lesd.) Dyko & D. Hawksw.

11. Lichen species on the UK Priority List (BAP) recorded from Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (2008)


Acarospora subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier
Anaptychia ciliaris subsp. ciliaris (L.) Körb. ex A. Massal.
Arthonia anglica Coppins
Arthonia atlantica P. James
# Arthonia invadens Coppins
Bacidia incompta (Borrer ex Hook.) Anzi
Blarneya hibernica D. Hawksw., Coppins & P. James
Caloplaca aractina (Fr.) Häyrén
Cladonia mediterranea P.A. Duvign. & Abbayes
Collema latzelii Zahlbr.
Cryptolechia carneolutea (Turner) A. Massal.
Enterographa sorediata Coppins & P.James
Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin
Graphina pauciloculata Coppins & P. James
Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt
Heterodermia speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis.
Lecania chlorotiza (Nyl.) P. James
Lecanographa amylacea (Ehrh. ex Pers.) Egea & Torrente
Lecidea erythrophaea Flörke
Leptogium cochleatum (Dicks.) P.M. Jørg. & P. James
Megalospora tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman
Melaspilea lentiginosa (Lyell ex Leight.) Müll. Arg.
Opegrapha prosodea Ach.
Parmotrema robustum (Degel.) Hale
Physcia tribacioides Nyl.
Porina hibernica P. James & Swinscow
Porina sudetica (Körb.) Lettau
Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain.
Ramonia dictyospora Coppins
Solenopsora liparina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Stereocaulon delisei Bory ex Duby
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr.
Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norman
Toninia sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal
Usnea articulata (L.) Hoffm.
Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg.
Wadeana dendrographa (Nyl.) Coppins & P. James


12. List of Schedule 8 Species recorded from Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly


Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt
Parmelinopsis minarum (Vain.) Elix & Hale
Physcia tribacioides Nyl.
Solenopsora liparina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norman

13. Lichen species recorded from Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly for which Britain has International Responsibility


Agonimia octospora
Anisomeridium viridescens
Arthonia anglica
Arthonia anombrophila
Arthonia astroidestera
Arthonia atlantica
Arthonia ilicina
# Arthonia invadens [LF]
Arthropyrenia nitescens
Blarneya hibernica
Caloplaca britannica
Cresponea premnea
Cryptolechia carneolutea
Degelia atlantica
Degelia plumbea
Enterographa sorediata
## Eopyrenula grandicola [F]
Graphina pauciloculata
Graphina ruiziana
Heterodermia leucomela
Hypotrachyna endochlora
Hypotrachyna sinuosa
Hypotrachyna taylorensis
Lecanactis subabietina
Lecania chlorotiza
Lecanographa amylacea
Lecanographa lyncea
Leptogium britannicum
Leptogium cochleatum
Leptogeum cyanescens
Lobaria amplissima
Lobaria pulmonaria
Lobaria scrobiculata
Lobaria virens
Megalospora tuberculosa
# Melaspilea lentiginosa [LF]
Menegazzia terebrata
Micarea lignaria var. endoleuca
Micarea xanthonica
Nephroma tangeriense
Opegrapha corticola
Opegrapha fumosa
Opegrapha prosodea
Opegrapha saxigena
Pannaria conoplea
Pannaria rubiginosa
Parmeliella parvula
Parmeliella triptophylla
Parmelinopsis horrescens
Peltigera collina
Phaeographis inusta
Phaeographis lyellii
Phyllospora rosei
Polyblastia agraria
Porina coralloidea
Porina hibernica
Porina rosei
Pseudocyphellaria aurata
Pseudocyphellaria crocata
Pyrenocollema arenisedum
Pyrenocollema subarenisedum
Pyrenula laevigata
Ramalina fraxinea
Ramalina portuensis
Ramonia dictyospora
Rinodina roboris var. roboris
Schismatomma cretaceum
Schismatomma quercicola
Stereocaulon delisei
## Stenocybe septata
Sticta canariensis / dufourii
Sticta dufourii
Sticta fuliginosa
Sticta limbata
Sticta sylvatica
Strigula taylorii
Syncesia myrticola
Usnea articulata
Usnea esperantiana
Wadeana dendrographa