HYDROIDS, SEA ANEMONES AND JELLYFISH (CNIDARIA)

P.A. Gainey

Gainey, in Spalding, A. (Ed) 1997, has reviewed the status of this group around the coasts of Cornwall. Approximately 76 anthozoan species (sea anemones, sea pens and corals) are known from British waters and of these about 50 have been recorded in Cornish waters. About 27 of these can be considered to be local to very rare. Many of them belong to the Lusitanian/Mediterranean elements of the marine fauna. Many different species of Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa have been found around the Cornish coastline, at least 12 species of which may be considered to be rare to very rare. Some of these species are pelagic in nature and the very long Cornish coastline is ideally situated to receive them. There is no Red Data Book for this group and the provisional listings here depend largely on the experience of the author and on the information stored on the ERICA database. The reference works by Manuel (1980; 1981), Cornelius (1995) and the Plymouth Marine Fauna (M.B.A., 1957) have been useful sources of information.

1. Hydroids ( Hydrozoa)

1.1. Hydroida

Aglaophenia kirchenpaueri

Diphasia alata

Eudendrium album White Stick hydroid

Laomedea angulata

Plumularia obliqua

Obelia bidentata

Rhizorhagium album

Tamarisca tamarisca

Velella velella Jack Sail-by-the-wind or By-the-wind-sailor

1.2. Siphonophora

Physalia physalis Portuguese Man O’War

The siphonophores Agalma elegans (Sars) Fewkes, Muggiaea kochi (Will) and Muggiaea atlantica Cunningham have all been recorded in Cornish waters in recent years. In 2007 vast numbers of the siphonophore Apolemia uvaria (Lesueur) were recorded.

2. Sea anemones and their allies (Anthozoa)

2.1. Soft Corals (Alcyonacea)

Alcyonium glomeratum Red Sea Finger

Alcyonium hibernicum Pink Sea Finger

Eunicella verrucosa Pink Sea Fan

2.2. Sea-pens (Pennatulacea)

Virgularia mirabilis Slender Sea Pen

2.3. Encrusting anemones (Zoantharia)

Parazoanthus anguicomus White Cluster Anemone

Parazoanthus axinellae Yellow Cluster Anemone

2.4. Sea anemones (Actinaria)

Actinauge richardi

Aiptasia mutabilis Trumpet Anemone

Amphianthus dohrnii Sea Fan Anemone

Anemonactis mazeli

Anthopleura ballii Red-speckled Pimplet

Anthopleura thallia Glaucus Pimplet

Aureliania heterocera Imperial Anemone

Cataphellia brodricii Latticed Corklet

Edwardsia timida Timid Burrowing Anemone

Gonactinia prolifera

Halcampoides elongatus Night Anemone

Hormathia coronata

Mesacmaea mitchelli Policeman Anemone

Paraphellia expansa

Phellia gausapata Warted Corklet

Sagartiogeton laceratus

Urticina eques Horseman Anemone

2.5. True Corals (Scleractinia)

Balanophyllia regia The Scarlet & Gold Cup Coral

Caryophyllia inornata Southern Cup Coral

Hoplangia durotrix Weymouth Carpet Coral

Leptopsammia pruvoti Sunset Cup Coral

Sphenotrochus andrewianus Wedge Coral

3. Jellyfish ( Scyphozoa)

3.1. Stauromedusae

Haliclystus auricula A stalked jellyfish

Lucernariopsis campanulata A stalked jellyfish

Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis A stalked jellyfish

3.2. Semaeostomae

Pelagia noctiluca Mauve Stinger