FUNGI

P.A. Gainey

The fungi have been relatively poorly studied and recorded in Cornwall over the years due to a lack of experienced, resident mycologists. The frequent need for recourse to high power microscopy and chemical testing has also acted to hinder definitive identification of species, as has the unavailability of precise, relatively easy to use, and up to date fungal keys. J.L. Gregory (1994) and G.B. Miller have prepared Cornish lists whilst more recently B. Candy has recorded extensively throughout Cornwall and has produced very detailed lists for a wide range of fungal groups. Candy (1997) produced the first tentative list of Red Data Book and locally scarce fungi for Cornwall. Ing (1992) has produced a provisional Red Data List of British fungi. With this he attempted to identify those fungi which are extinct or, more importantly, at serious risk because their habitats, substrata or hosts are similarly threatened. Orton (1994) cast doubt upon this list, mainly because observations are largely limited to fungal fruiting-bodies which may only appear at long intervals of time, and the chance of a competent recorder finding them is small. Besides the relative lack of recorders (compared to the number of people recording birds, plants and other groups) there is also a serious lack of specialists in many of the more difficult and obscure groups. The lack of knowledge of fruiting patterns also hinders the assessment of which fungi are genuinely rare and which are not. It is not possible, with any degree of confidence, to state whether a ‘rare’ fungus is genuinely rare, or whether it only produces fruiting bodies rarely.

Recently (2007) the British Mycological Society (BMS) working with the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) has produced a Provisional Red Data List of threatened British Fungi which supersedes Ing’s (1992) list. Recently, also, the Association of British Fungus Groups (ABFG), 2006, has produced a list of Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), endangered, species. Visits made by the British Mycological Society (BMS) field groups in 1965, 1982 and 2000 have made valuable additions to our knowledge of the Cornish fungi, and access to the BMS Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI) has proved to be invaluable. The recent formation of a Cornwall Fungus Recording Group, affiliated to the Association of British Fungus Groups, has stimulated greater recording effort and has resulted in a greater knowledge and better understanding of the Cornish fungal scene. Work for this Red Data Book has shown that Cornwall has a great fungal diversity including many rare, infrequently recorded species. One of the main reasons for this is the wide range of habitats present: calcareous dune systems on the north coast; ultramafic rocks on the Lizard Peninsula; old, unimproved grassland on country estate lawns, sea cliffs and culm measures; upland acidic moors and bogs; deciduous and coniferous woodland mainly in east Cornwall, much of it being ancient woodland; heathland; shingle; metaliferous mining sites, and many more. The publication of the Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota (Legon et al., 2005) surprisingly the first ever comprehensive list of the British basidiomycota and a milestone in British mycology, has brought a great deal of order to what was a rather chaotic group and has greatly assisted in the compilation of this Cornish fungal account. The BMS checklist has been used as the source for the ascomycete names. I am very grateful to Martin Ainsworth, Michael Jordan, Bruce Ing, Ken Preston-Mafham and members of the Cornwall Fungus Recording Group for their records and helpful comments.

1. RED DATA BOOK LIST OF THREATENED BRITISH FUNGI (PROVISIONAL ASSESSMENT – BRITISH MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 2007).

 Species marked with an asterisk also appear in Ing’s 1992 Red Data List. Numbers given in brackets after the Cornish vice county (VC) distribution represent the total records for that species on the British Mycological Society Database as at September 2007.

1.1. AGARICS & BOLETI

Cortinarius orellanus Foolís Webcap

Cortinarius violaceus Violet Webcap

Entoloma bloxamii Big Blue Pinkgill

Hygrocybe calyptriformis Pink Waxcap

Hygrocybe spadicea Date Waxcap

Hygrophorus nemoreus Oak Woodwax

Limacella illinita Dripping Slimecap

Phylloporus pelletieri Golden Gilled Bolete

Russula aurea Gilded Brittlegill

Russula intermedia

1.2. ASCOMYCOTA

Camarops polysperma Thick Tarcrust

Cordyceps tuberculata

Geoglossum atropurpureum Dark-purple Earthtongue

Geoglossum elongatum

Hypocreopsis rhododendri Hazel Gloves

Microglossum olivaceum Olive Earthtongue

1.3. NON AGARICOID HYMENOMYCETES (including brackets, chanterelles and stipitates).

Cantharellus ferruginascens

Cantharellus friesii Orange Chanterelle

Clavaria straminea Straw Club

Cotylidia pannosa Woolly Rosette

Hericium coralloides Coral Tooth

Hericium erinaceus Bearded Tooth

Hydnellum concrescens Zoned Tooth

Hydnellum ferrugineum Mealy Tooth

Hydnellum spongiosipes Velvet Tooth

Inonotus nodulosus

Phellodon confluens Fused Tooth

Podoscypha multizonata Zoned Rosette

Sarcodon squamosus Scaly Tooth

Geastrum elegans Elegant Earthstar

Puccinia hydrocotyles

Triphragmium filipendulae

Tilletia caries

2. PROVISIONALLY NATIONALLY SCARCE SPECIES

These are according to the number of records on the National Fungus Records Database as at 2007. The number of such records is given in brackets. Some of these may well qualify as Provisional Red Data list species in the future.

All the species listed below are stated to be rarely reported or collected in Legon et. al. 2005. Species marked with an asterisk also appear in Ingís 1992 Red Data List.

Agaricus bresadolanus

Agaricus cappellianus

Agaricus cupreobrunneus

Agaricus devoniensis

Agaricus lanipes

Agaricus litoralis

Agaricus luteomaculatus

Agaricus porphyrocephalus

Aleurodiscus botryosus

Aleurodiscus wakefieldiae

Amanita echinocephala Solitary Amanita

Amanita franchetii

Amanita spadicea

Arrhenia obscurata

Asterostroma cervicolor

Astraeus hygrometricus Barometer Earthstar

Athelia neuhoffii

Athelopsis galzinii

Athelopsis glaucina

Basidiodendron cinereum

Basidiodendron rimosum

Boidinia furfuracea

Boletus legaliae

Bovista aestivalis Deceiving Bovist

Buchwaldoboletus lignicola Wood Bolete

Byssocorticium efibulatum

Calyptella campanula

Camarophyllopsis schulzeri

Capronia pilosella

Ceraceomyces sublaevis

Ceratosebacina longispora

Ceriporia excelsa

Ceriporia purpurea

Ceriporiopsis pannocincta

Chlorophyllum brunneum

Chromocyphella muscicola

Chrysomphalina grossula

Clathrus archeri Devilís Fingers

Clathrus ruber Red Cage

Clavaria krieglsteineri

Clavaria zollingeri Violet Coral

Clitocybe agrestis

Clitocybe barbularum

Collybia prolixa

Coniophora hanoiensis

Conocybe coprophila

Conocybe dunensis

Conocybe juniana

Conocybe moseri

Conocybe semiglobata

Conocybe striaepes

Conocybe vexans

Coprinellus congregatus

Coprinellus ephemerus

Coprinellus heterosetulosus

Coprinopsis friesii

Coprinus patouillardii

Coprinus silvaticus

Coprinus sterquilinus

Coprinus tuberosus

Cortinarius bulbosus

Cortinarius evernius

Cortinarius fulvescens

Cortinarius malicorius

Cotylidia undulata Stalked Rosette

Crepidotus carpaticus

Crepidotus lundellii

Cryptococcus aquaticus

Cyphellostereum laeve

Dacrymyces capitatus

Dacrymyces minor

Dendrothele amygdalispora

Dendrothele sasae

Dichomitus efibulatus

Dumontinia tuberosa Anemone Cup

Elaphocordyceps longisegmentis

Entoloma caeruleum

Entoloma nitidum

Entoloma scabiosum

Entoloma saundersii

Exidiopsis calcea

Galerina embolus

Galerina nana

Galerina praticola

Galerina pseudomycenopsis

Galerina sphagnorum

Galerina subclavata

Galerina triscopa

Galerina uncialis

Geastrum floriforme Daisy Earthstar

Geastrum fornicatum Arched Earthstar

Geastrum pectinatum Beaked Earthstar

Geastrum schmidelii Dwarf Earthstar

Geopora arenicola

Geopora arenosa

Gloeoporus taxicola

Glomus macrocarpum Large-spored Pea Truffle

Graddonia coracina

Hebeloma birrus

Hebeloma fragilipes

Hebeloma helodes

Hebeloma cavipes

Hebeloma populinum

Helvella corium

Helvella ephippium

Hemimycena crispula

Hemimycena delectabilis

Hericium cirrhatum Tiered Tooth

Hydropus floccipes

Hygrocybe calciphila

Hymenochaete carpatica

Hymenochaete cinnamomea

Hymenochaete fuliginosa

Hymenochaete tabacina

Hyphoderma medioburiense

Hyphoderma roseocremeum

Hyphoderma transiens

Hyphodontia alutacea

Hyphodontia breviseta

Hyphodontia pruni

Hypochniciellum subillaqueatum

Inocybe calamistrata Greenfoot Fibrecap

Inocybe mixtilis

Inocybe nitidiuscula

Inocybe paludinella

Inocybe soluta

Inocybe whitei Blushing Fibrecap

Laccaria fraterna

Lactarius aspideus

Lactarius lilacinus

Lagarobasidium detriticum

Lentaria afflata

Lepiota hystrix

Lepiota ignivolvata

Leucoagaricus georginae

Leucoagaricus purpureolilacinus

Leucoagaricus serenus

Leucoagaricus sublittoralis

Leucoagaricus wichanskyi

Leucocoprinus cepaestipes

Lycoperdon umbrinum Umber-brown Puffball

Lyophyllum gangraenosum Smoky Domecap

Marasmiellus candidus

Marasmius epiphylloides

Marasmius hudsonii Holly Parachute

Marasmius minutus

Megalocystidium leucoxanthum

Mutinus ravenelii Red Stinkhorn

Mycena bulbosa

Mycena chlorantha

Mycena clavularis

Mycena corynephora

Mycena meliigena

Mycena mirata

Mycena mucor

Mycena polyadelpha

Mycena pseudocorticola

Mycena seynesii

Mycenella salicina

Mycoaciella bispora

Mycocalia minutissima

Naucoria bohemica

Nectria pseudopeziza

Nectria ralfsii

Nectriella consolationis

Nidularia deformis Pea-shaped Birdís Nest

Nodotia lyndoniae

Octaviania asterosperma

Octospora rubens

Omphalina wallacei

Panaeolus subfirmus

Peniophora nuda

Peniophora reidii

Peniophora rufomarginata

Peniophora violaceolivida

Perenniporia ochroleuca

Peziza ammophila Dune Cup

Peziza domiciliana

Peziza granulosa

Peziza hortensis

Phaeolepiota aurea Golden Bootleg

Phellinus conchatus

Phlebia lilascens

Pholiota lucifera

Pholiota spumosa

Plectania melastoma

Pluteus atromarginatus

Pluteus aurantiorugosus

Pluteus diettrichii

Pluteus griseoluridus

Pluteus satur

Postia fragilis

Psathyrella canoceps

Psathyrella cotonea Yellowfoot Brittlestem

Psathyrella narcotica

Psathyrella stercoraria

Psathyrella typhae

Pseudotomentella mucidula

Psilocybe subviscida var. velata

Ramariopsis crocea

Ramariopsis subtilis

Russula acrifolia

Russula alnetorum

Russula amoena

Russula amoenolens

Russula curtipes

Russula insignis

Russula nauseosa

Russula praetervisa

Russula robertii

Russula romellii

Russula subrubens

Russula veternosa

Scleroderma cepa Onion Puffball

Sirobasidium brefeldianum

Sistotrema albopallescens

Sistotrema hispanicum

Sistotremastrum niveocremeum

Sistotrema oblongisporum

Sowerbyella radiculata

Steccherinum bourdotii

Stropharia luteonitens

Suillus collinitus

Taphrina ulmi

Tephrocybe ellisii

Terana caerulea Cobalt Crust

Thelephora penicillata

Tomentella crinalis

Trametes pubescens

Trechispora hymenocystis

Trechispora laevis

Trechispora praefocata

Trechispora stellulata

Tremella versicolor

Trichoglossum variabile

Tricholoma atrosquamosum

Tuber dryophilum Wood Truffle

Tuber excavatum Hollowed Truffle

Tubulicium vermiferum

Tubulicrinis glebulosus

Tubulicrinis regificus

Tylopilus porphyrosporus Dusky Bolete

Volvariella surrecta

Xenasma pulverulentum

UREDINIOMYCETES (Rusts)

Colacogloea peniophorae

Cronartium quercuum

FrommeŽlla tormentillae

Helicogloea graminicola

Melampsora allii-populina

Milesina whitei

Phragmidium rosae-pimpinellifoliae

Phragmidium tuberculatum

Puccinia allii

Puccinia behenis

Puccinia betonicae

Puccinia commutata

Puccinia difformis

Puccinia dioicae var. extensicola

Puccinia epilobii

Puccinia festucae

Puccinia hieracii var. hypochaeridis

Puccinia nitida

Puccinia pimpinellae

Puccinia pygmaea var. ammophilina

Uromyces acetosae

Uromyces ambiguus

Uromyces anthyllidis

Uromyces appendiculatus

Uromyces beticola

Uromyces ervi

Uromyces minor

Uromyces scrophulariae

Uromyces trifolii

USTILAGINOMYCETES

Entyloma helosciadii

Exobasidium camelliae

Farysia thuemenii

Urocystis eranthidis

Ustilago cynodontis

MYXOMYCETES (slime moulds)

Craterium muscorum

Hemitrichia clavata

Perichaena pedata

Physarum lateritium

Physarum psittacinum