BRYOPHYTES: LIVERWORTS (MARCHANTIOPHYTA),
HORNWORTS (ANTHOCEROTOPHYTA) AND MOSSES
(BRYOPHYTA)

D.T. Holyoak

1. General introduction to bryophyte accounts


Rilstone (1948, 1949) published the first bryophyte flora to cover all of Cornwall, but like earlier Cornish bryologists he was hampered by lack of transport which meant that only a small part of Cornwall was searched. Extensive fieldwork by Mrs Jean Paton over nine years during the 1960s gave much better coverage than previously existed. Added to this, her revisions of herbarium material and study of older literature resulted in an exemplary Cornish flora (Paton, 1969) and laid a sound foundation for future work. This summary inevitably owes much to her work. Fieldwork since 1969 has added a number of species to the regional lists (partly summarised by Paton MS., 1986), with more found during 1993-2008. A summary of the bryophytes of the Isles of Scilly has been published (Paton & Holyoak, 2005). The present author has been actively recording bryophytes in Cornwall from 1993 to 2008, working towards an updated bryophyte flora for Cornwall. The recent distributional recording has been based on tetrads (2 x 2 km grid squares), with about 85,000 records amassed.


This account entirely updates that in the first edition of the Red Data Book for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (Holyoak, 1997). It takes 1950 as the starting date for recent records in order to remain comparable with the national Atlas (Hill et al., 1992, 1994) and make full use of the published results of Jean Paton's field studies during the 1960s. It includes records made up to the end of August 2008.


The nomenclature and delimitation of taxa follow Hill et al. (2008). The sequence of taxa under each heading is alphabetical. Because there have been many changes in taxonomy and nomenclature of British bryophytes in recent years, synonymous names are listed (prefaced by ‘syn.’) for any name that is different in modern standard publications (Paton, 1969, 1999; Smith, 1978, 2004; Corley et al., 1981; Corley & Hill, 1981; Corley & Crundwell, 1991; Hill et al., 1991-1994; Holyoak, 1997; Paton & Holyoak, 2005).  However, abbreviations for authors’ names follow Brummitt & Powell (1992) throughout. Because English names are not normally used by bryologists, they are given only for a few rare species for which they are used in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981.


Detailed accounts are given mainly for ‘Nationally Rare’ species (and subspecies or varieties), i.e. those present in 1-15 10 km grid squares in Britain. ‘Nationally Scarce’ species (those present in 16-100 10 km grid squares: based on revised list by Preston, 2006) and ‘Locally Scarce’ species (those recorded in four or fewer tetrads in Cornwall, but not qualifying as Nationally Rare or Nationally Scarce) are merely listed with an indication of their occurrence in Isles of Scilly (IOS), remainder of West Cornwall (VC1) and East Cornwall (VC2); square brackets indicate records only from pre-1950. Species covered in the first edition of the Red Data Book for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly by Holyoak (1997) but excluded here along with a few other excluded taxa are listed in sections 6. and 11. below with brief comments explaining their exclusion.


At least for vascular plants, ‘Nationally Rare’ species were formerly regarded as those deserving to be on the ‘Red list’ and were treated in Red Data Books (e.g. Perring & Farrell, 1983). Nowadays, red listing is carried out on the basis of threat rather than rarity using IUCN threat criteria (Palmer et al., 1997). This approach was adopted in part by Church et al. (2001) in the national Bryophyte Red Data Book, but full assessment of British bryophytes using IUCN threat criteria has not yet been completed. In the present review, besides covering all ‘Nationally Rare’ taxa, fuller accounts are also given for a few others, particularly some ‘Nationally Scarce’ species that are covered in the Bryophyte Red Data Book accounts (Church et al., 2001) and species covered in the UK Biodiversity Action Plans (following the list agreed by DEFRA in 2007).


In the accounts below the numbers of tetrads (2 x 2 km grid squares) in which each taxon has been recorded (post-1950, unless otherwise stated) is given. Vice-county status is also given, qualified where necessary by comment on recent distributional changes. Notes on habitat and ecology are based on Cornish information only, except where otherwise noted. The following abbreviations are used for herbaria (‘Herb.’) at which Cornish specimens mentioned in the text are lodged: BBSUK (British Bryological Society, at National Museum & Gallery of Wales, Cardiff), DTH (author's herbarium).


This review makes substantial use of earlier work by others, especially Mrs Jean Paton's A Bryophyte Flora of Cornwall (1969) and the national Atlas records and published accounts (Hill et al., 1991- 1994). Particular thanks are due to Mrs Paton for giving me access to the fuller typescript on which her published Flora was based, which has many subsequent annotations. Thanks are also due to those who have contributed records or other information, or checked specimens: S. Adams, Dr J.W. Bates, I. Bennallick, J. Blackburn, T.H. Blackstock, T.L. Blockeel, Mrs S. Board, S.D.S. Bosanquet, Dr D.F. Chamberlain, Mrs K.M. Cocking, the late A.C. Crundwell, Prof. J.G. Duckett, Dr S.R. Edwards, the late Dr R.A. Finch, R.J. Fisk, Dr P.A. Gainey, Dr L. Hedenäs, Miss J.I. Hendey, Dr M.O. Hill, N.G. Hodgetts, F.R. Jeffrey, F.R. Lammiman, M. Lawley, H.W. Matcham, Miss R.J. Murphy, Ms C.J. Neil, Dr M.E. Newton, Dr S.V. O’Leary, Mrs J.A. Paton, A.R. Perry, the late R.B. Pierrot, M. Pool, R.D. Porley, Dr C.D. Preston, K. Preston-Mafham, Dr M.C.F. Proctor, Mrs C.S. Rieser, the late Dr F. Rose, G.P. Rothero, Dr F.J. Rumsey, N. de Sausmarez, Dr J.D. Sleath, A.C. Smith, Dr A.J.E. Smith, G. Smith, R.C. Stern, N.F. Stewart, Ms B. Tonkin, C.C. Townsend, M.A. Walton, the late Dr E.V. Watson, Ms B. Wheeler, the late Dr H.L.K. Whitehouse, M.J. Wigginton, D. Wrench. Considerable efforts to protect threatened bryophytes in Cornwall in recent years have been made by English Nature (now Natural England), Plantlife (now Plantlife International) and Cornwall Wildlife Trust, so it is appropriate to acknowledge the particularly large contributions made in organising this work by Jeremy Clitherow, Ruth Davis, Dr Jenny Duckworth, Trevor Edwards, David Hazlehurst, Andrew McDouall, Ron Porley and Beth Tonkin.


2. Introduction to liverworts and hornworts

Extensive fieldwork and research on liverworts by Mrs J.A. Paton since the 1950s has led to the discovery in Cornwall of species new to Britain, several of them new to science (e.g. Paton, 1965, 1974, 1981, 1990). Thus the liverworts of the region are now better known than those in most parts of Britain.

As with mosses, Cornwall is notably rich in liverworts, with some 169 species from a total in the British Isles of 300 (ca 56%). No fewer than 22 of our taxa are classed as Nationally Rare (although several of these are introduced species) and 26 as Nationally Scarce; another 21 taxa are listed here as Locally Scarce. Among our rarities, we have ca 80% of all known populations of Cephaloziella nicholsonii. At a national level, Cornwall has all known extant British populations of six species (Telaranea europaea, Cephaloziella dentata, C. integerrima, Marsupella profunda, Gongylanthus ericetorum, Riccia bifurca) and one half or more of the British populations of a further eleven (Cephaloziella massalongi, C. nicholsonii, C. calyculata, Jamesoniella undulifolia, Lejeunea mandonii, Fossombronia angulosa, F. maritima, Riccia crystallina, R. nigrella, R. crozalsii, Telaranea murphyae).


3. Accounts of Nationally Rare and other Red-list species of liverworts and hornworts

Cephaloziella calyculata

Cephaloziella dentata

Cephaloziella integerrima

Cephaloziella massalongi

Cephaloziella nicholsonii

Cephaloziella turneri

Dumortiera hirsuta

Fossombronia maritima

Gongylanthus ericetorum

Jamesoniella undulifolia Marsh Earwort

Lejeunea mandonii Atlantic Lejeunea

Marsupella profunda Western Rustwort

Petalophyllum ralfsii Petalwort

Phaeoceros carolinianus

Riccia bifurca Lizard Crystalwort

Riccia crystallina

Riccia huebeneriana Violet Crystalwort

Riccia nigrella

Riccia rhenana

Scapania curta

Scapania paludicola

Solenostoma caespiticium

Southbya tophacea

Sphaerocarpos texanus

Telaranea europaea

Telaranea murphyae

4. List of Nationally Scarce species of liverworts and hornworts

* = Red-list species with fuller account in preceding section.

Aneura mirabilis (Malmb.) Wickett & Goffinet VC2 (syn. Cryptothallus mirabilis Malmb.)

Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal. var. macrostachya VC2

Cephalozia pleniceps (Austin) Lindb. VC2

* Cephaloziella nicholsonii Douin VC1, VC2

Cephaloziella spinigera (Lindb.) Warnst. VC1, VC2(syn. C. subdentata Warnst.)

Cephaloziella stellulifera (Spruce) Schiffn. VC1, VC2

* Cephaloziella turneri (Hook.) Müll. Frib. IOS, VC1,VC2

Cladopodiella francisci (Hook.) H.Buch ex Jörg. VC1, VC2

Fossombronia foveolata Lindb. IOS, VC1,VC2

Fossombronia angulosa (Dicks.) Raddi VC1, VC2

Fossombronia caespitiformis De Not. ex Rabenh. VC1, VC2

Fossombronia caespitiformis subsp. multispira (Schiffn.) J.R.Bray & Cargill VC1, VC2(syn. F. husnotii Corb.)

Fossombronia incurva Lindb. IOS, VC1,VC2

* Fossombronia maritima (Paton) Paton IOS, VC1,VC2

Jamesoniella autumnalis (DC.) Steph. VC2

Solenostoma subellipticum (Lindb. ex Kaal.) R.M.Schust. VC2(syn. Jungermannia subelliptica (Lindb. ex Kaal.) Levier)

Moerckia hibernica (Hook.) Gottsche [VC1]

* Petalophyllum ralfsii (Wilson) Nees & Gottsche VC1

Porella pinnata L. VC2

Riccia beyrichiana Hampe ex Lehm. VC1, VC2

Riccia cavernosa Hoffm. VC1

Riccia crozalsii Levier IOS, VC1,VC2

* Riccia huebeneriana Lindenb. VC2

Sphaerocarpos michelii Bellardi IOS

* Sphaerocarpos texanus Austin IOS

Targionia hypophylla L. VC2

5. List of Locally Scarce species of liverworts and hornworts

Adelanthus decipiens (Hook.) Mitt. VC2

Barbilophozia barbata (Schmidel ex Schreb.) Loeske VC2

Barbilophozia floerkei (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Loeske VC2

Blepharostoma trichophyllum (L.) Dumort. VC1

Calypogeia sphagnicola (Arnell & J.Perss.) Müll.Frib. VC2

Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia (Hook.) Schiffn. VC2

Gymnomitrion concinnatum (Lightf.) Corda VC2

Gymnomitrion obtusum Lindb. VC2

Haplomitrium hookeri (Sm.) Nees IOS [VC1]

Harpalejeunea molleri (Steph.) Grolle VC1, VC2(syn. H. ovata (Hook.) Schiffn.)

Harpanthus scutatus (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Spruce VC2

Jungermannia atrovirens Dumort. [VC1],VC2

Leiocolea badensis (Gottsche) Jörg. VC1, VC2

Marsupella funckii (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Dumort. [VC1], VC2

Mylia taylorii (Hook.) Gray VC2

Porella cordaeana (Huebener) Moore VC2

Riccardia incurvata Lindb. VC1, VC2

Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth. VC2

Scapania subalpina (Nees ex Lindenb.) Dumort. VC2

Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort. VC1, VC2

Tritomaria quinquedentata (Huds.) H.Buch VC2

6. List of species of liverworts and hornworts included in Red Data Book for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, 1st ed. (1997) but now excluded

Anthoceros agrestis Paton IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Anthoceros punctatus L. IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Cephalozia catenulata (Huebener)Lindb.

IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Cephalozia leucantha Spruce VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Cephaloziella rubella (Nees) Warnst. [VC1, VC2] misidentified.

Cololejeunea minutissima (Sm.)Schiffn. IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Colura calyptrifolia (Hook.) Dumort. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Diplophyllum obtusifolium (Hook.)Dumort. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Douinia ovata (Dicks.) H.Buch VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Jubula hutchinsiae (Hook.) Dumort. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Kurzia sylvatica (A.Evans) Grolle IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Kurzia trichoclados (Müll.Frib.) Grolle VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Lejeunea patens Lindb. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Lophocolea bispinosa (Hook.f. & Taylor) Gottsche et al. IOS, VC2 an alien species that has spread to several other British counties (Hill et al., 2008); now abundant in IOS and VC2; not threatened.

Lophocolea semiteres (Lehm.) Mitt. alien species that has now spread to many counties in England (Hill et al., 2008), so not regarded as threatened.

Lophozia longiflora (Nees) Schiffn. [VC1, VC2] (syn. L. guttulata (Lindb.) A.Evans): misidentified.

Lophozia sudetica (Nees ex Huebener) Grolle VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Marchantia polymorpha L. subsp. polymorpha VC1, VC2 (syn. M. polymorpha var. aquatica (Nees)Gottsche et al.). no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Marsupella sprucei (Limpr.) Bernet VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006); not Locally Scarce.

Mylia anomala (Hook.) Gray VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Nardia compressa (Hook.) Gray VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart.)Dumort. VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Plagiochila spinulosa (Dicks.)Dumort. VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Porella arboris-vitae (With.) Grolle VC1 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Porella obtusata (Taylor) Trevis. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Ptilidium ciliare (L.) Hampe VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Riccia subbifurca Warnst. ex Croz. IOS, VC1, VC2 (syn. R. warnstorfii auct. non Limpr. ex Warnst.). no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

7. Introduction to mosses

Cornwall has a rich moss flora that totals about 405 species (amounting to 54% of the total of 754 species known in the British Isles). The moss flora of Cornwall includes a good share of Nationally Rare and Nationally Scarce species, many of them plants of Lusitanian distribution. Even montane mosses are significantly represented among our Locally Scarce taxa. Altogether, this account deals with 29 Nationally Rare taxa (three of them varieties of commoner species), 59 that are Nationally Scarce, and 42 that are Locally Scarce.

A Nationally Rare species for which one old Cornish record was accepted by Paton (1969), Eurhynchiastrum pulchellum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen (syn. Eurhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn.), is excluded from this account because Hill (1993) rejected the record. Another Nationally Rare species, Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwägr.)Hampe s.s. is also excluded. It was listed for Perranporth in the revision by Smith (1993), but subsequent study of the same specimens (leg. F.E. Milsom, in herb. BBSUK) by the author and Mrs J.A. Paton has resulted in their reidentification as D. gracile (Mitt.) Kuntze (syn. D. crispatissimum(Müll.Hal.) Paris).

The Cornish populations of three rare mosses are of international significance: Ditrichum cornubicum is known elsewhere only from one small population in Ireland (Holyoak, in preparation), while Weissia multicapsularis is now known living only in Cornwall and Fissidens squamosa var. curnovii has more than half of all its known localities in the Duchy. At a national level, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly are together notable for having all known extant British populations for eight species (Acaulon mediterraneum, Bruchia vogesiaca, Bryum apiculatum, B. valparaisense, Ditrichum subulatum, D. cornubicum, Grimmia crinita, Weissia multicapsularis) and one half or more of the British populations of a further 10 taxa (Calyptrochaeta apiculata, Fissidens curvatus, Fontinalis squamosa var. curnowii, Leptophascum leptophyllum, Phascum cuspidatum var. papillosum, Pohlia andalusica, Scopelophila cataractae, Tortula canescens, T. solmsii, T. wilsonii).

Several species that do not qualify for accounts here are nevertheless distinctly uncommon and localised in Britain but relatively common in Cornwall, notably Fissidens bryoides Hedw. var. caespitans Schimp.(syn. F. curnovii Mitt.), Fissidens celticus Paton, Schistostega pennata (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr, Epipterygium tozeri (Grev.) Lindb., Scorpiurium circinatum (Bruch) M.Fleisch. & Loeske and Scleropodium touretii (Brid.) L.F.Koch.

8. Accounts of Nationally Rare and other Red-list species of mosses

Acaulon mediterraneum

Amblystegium radicale

Bruchia vogesiaca

Bryum apiculatum

Bryum dyffrynense

Bryum kunzei

Bryum valparaisense

Calyptrochaeta apiculatus

Cyclodictyon laetevirens Bright Green Cave-moss

Dendrocryphaea lamyana Multi-fruited River-moss

Ditrichum cornubicum Cornish Path-moss

Ditrichum plumbicola

Ditrichum subulatum

Entosthodon pulchellus

Fissidens curvatus

Fissidens monguillonii

Fissidens serrulatus

Fontinalis squamosa var. curnowii

Grimmia crinita

Leptodontium gemmascens

Leptophascum leptophyllum

Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis

Phascum cuspidatum var. papillosum

Pohlia andalusica

Pohlia wahlenbergii var. calcarea

Scopelophila cataractae

Sematophyllum substrumulosum

Tortula cuneifolia

Tortula solmsii

Tortula wilsonii

Weissia multicapsularis

9. List of Nationally Scarce mosses

* = taxon with fuller account in section 8 above.

Abietinella abietina (Hedw.) M.Fleisch. var. abietina VC1 (syn. Thuidium abietinum (Hedw.) Schimp.)

Aloina ambigua (Bruch & Schimp.) Limpr. VC1, VC2 (syn. A. aloides (Koch ex Schultz) Kindb. var. ambigua (Bruch & Schimp.) E.J. Craig; A. ambigua in part of Paton, 1969)

Amblystegium confervoides (Brid.) Schimp. [VC2] (syn. Amblystegiella confervoides (Brid.) Loeske,

Platydictya confervoides (Brid.) H.A.Crum)

Atrichum tenellum (Röhl.) Bruch & Schimp. VC1, VC2

Brachydontium trichodes (F.Weber) Milde VC1, VC2

Bryum intermedium (Brid.) Blandow [VC1], VC2

Bryum tenuisetum Limpr. VC1, VC2

Bryum torquescens Bruch & Schimp. VC1 (syn. B. capillare var. torquescens (Bruch & Schimp.) Husn.)

Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda VC1 (syn. Campylium elodes (Lindb.) Kindb.)

Campylopus pilifer Brid. IOS, VC1,VC2 (syn. C. polytrichoides De Not.)

Campylopus subulatus Schimp. ex Milde VC2

Conardia compacta (Drumm. ex Müll.Hal.) H.Rob. VC2 (syn. Amblystegium compactum (Drumm. ex Müll.Hal.) Austin)

Coscinodon cribrosus (Hedw.) Spruce VC2

Dicranella crispa (Hedw.) Schimp. VC1, VC2

Didymodon acutus (Brid.) K.Saito VC1 (syn. Barbula acuta (Brid.) Brid.)

Didymodon tomaculosus (Blockeel) M.F.V.Corley VC1, VC2 (syn. Barbula tomaculosa Blockeel)

Discelium nudum (Dicks.) Brid. VC2

Distichium inclinatum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. VC1

Ditrichum lineare (Sw.) Lindb. VC2

Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe VC2

Drepanocladus sendtneri (Schimp. ex H.Müll.) Warnst. VC1

Ephemerum sessile (Bruch) Müll. Hal. IOS, VC1,VC2

Fissidens crispus Mont. IOS, VC1,VC2 (syn. F. limbatus Sull., F. viridulus in part of Paton, 1969)

Fissidens fontanus (Bach.Pyl.) Steud. VC2 (syn. Octodiceras fontanum (Bach.Pyl.) Lindb.)

Fissidens polyphyllus Wilson ex Bruch & Schimp. VC1, VC2

Fissidens rivularis (Spruce) Schimp. VC1, VC2

Glyphomitrium daviesii (Dicks.) Brid. [VC2] (syn. G. daviesii (With.) Brid.)

Grimmia decipiens (Schultz) Lindb. VC1

Grimmia laevigata (Brid.) Brid. VC1

Grimmia lisae De Not. VC1 (syn. G. retracta Stirt.)

Grimmia orbicularis Bruch ex Wilson VC1

Gymnostomum viridulum Brid. VC1, VC2 (syn. G. calcareum of Paton, 1969)

Hennediella stanfordensis (Steere) Blockeel VC1 (syn. Hyophila stanfordensis (Steere) A.J.E.Sm. & H.Whitehouse, Tortula stanfordensis Steere)

Leptobarbula berica (De Not.) Schimp. VC1, VC2

Microbryum davallianum (Sm.) R.H.Zander var. commutatum (Limpr.) R.H.Zander VC1, VC2 (syn. Pottia commutata Limpr.)

Microbryum starckeanum (Hedw.) R.H.Zander VC1, VC2 (syn. Pottia starckeana (Hedw.) Müll.Hall.,

P. starkeana (Hedw.) Müll.Hall., P. starckeana subsp. starckeana var. brachyodus Müll.Hall., P. starkeana subsp. starkeana var. brachyodus Müll.Hall.)

Phascum cuspidatum Hedw. var. piliferum (Hedw.) Hook. & Taylor VC1 (syn. Tortula acaulon (With.) R.H.Zander var. pilifera (Hedw.) R.H.Zander)

Philonotis arnellii Husn. VC1

Philonotis caespitosa Jur. VC1, VC2

Philonotis rigida Brid. VC1, VC2

Plagiopus oederianus (Sw.) H.A.Crum & L.E.Anderson) [VC1] (syn. P. oederi (Brid.) Limpr.)

Plagiothecium cavifolium (Brid.) Z.Iwats. VC1, VC2

Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) Schimp. var. obtusifolium (Turner) Moore VC2

Platyhypnidium lusitanicum (Schimp.) Ochyra & Bednarek-Ochyra VC1, VC2 (syn. P. alopecuroides (Brid.) A.J.E.Sm.,

Rhynchostegium alopecuroides (Brid.) A.J.E.Sm.,

R. lusitanicum (Schimp.) A.J.E.Sm., hom. illeg.)

Pleurochaete squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. IOS, VC1,VC2

Pohlia filum (Schimp.) Martensson VC2

Pohlia flexuosa Hook. VC2 (syn. P. flexuosa var. pseudomuyldermansii (Arts et al.) A.J.E.Sm., P. muyldermansii R.Wilczek & Demaret var. pseudomuyldermansii Arts et al.)

Pottiopsis caespitosa (Brid.) Blockeel & A.J.E.Sm. VC1 (syn. Pottia caespitosa (Brid.) Müll.Hal.,

Trichostomum caespitosum (Brid.) Jur.)

Pseudocalliergon lycopodioides (Brid.) Hedenäs VC1 (syn. Drepanocladus lycopodioides (Brid.) Warnst.)

Rhynchostegiella curviseta (Brid.) Limpr. VC2

Tortula atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. IOS, VC1,VC2 (syn. Desmatodon convolutus (Brid.) Grout)

Tortula canescens Mont. VC1, VC2

* Tortula wilsonii (Hook.) R.H.Zander VC1, VC2 (syn. Pottia wilsonii (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp.)

Ulota calvescens Wilson VC1

Weissia brachycarpa (Nees & Hornsch.) Jur. var. brachycarpa VC1, VC2 (syn. Weissia microstoma (Hedw.) Müll. Hal. var. brachycarpa (Nees & Hornsch.) Müll. Hal.)

Weissia controversa Hedw. var. crispata (Nees & Hornsch.) Nyholm VC1 (syn. W. crispata (Nees & Hornsch.) Müll. Hal.)

Weissia controversa Hedw. var. densifolia (Bruch & Schimp.) Wilson IOS, VC1,VC2

Weissia longifolia Mitt. var. longifolia VC1, VC2 (syn. W. crispa var. aciculata (Hedw.) Dixon)

Weissia perssonii Kindb. VC1, VC2 (syn. ‘W. occidentalis Warburg’ of Paton, 1969, nomen nudum).

10. List of Locally Scarce mosses

Andreaea rupestris Hedw. var. rupestris [VC1]

Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. VC2

Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwägr. VC2

Bartramia ithyphylla Brid. VC2

Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens (Stirt.) Giacom. VC2 (syn. Barbula ferruginascens Stirt.)

Bryum moravicum Podp. VC2 (syn. B. flaccidum auct. non Brid.,

B. subelegans auct. non Kindb.)

Calliergon giganteum (Schimp.) Kindb. VC1 (syn. Acrocladium giganteum (Schimp.) P.W.Richards & E.C.Wallace)

Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt. var. condensatum (Schimp.) E.Britton VC1

Dichodontium flavescens (Dicks.) Lindb. VC1, VC2 (perhaps Nationally Scarce, although omitted by Preston, 2006, probably because taxon is under-recorded)

Dicranella cerviculata (Hedw.) Schimp. [VC1, VC2]

Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) E.Britton VC2

Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. VC1, VC2

Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. VC1, VC2

Grimmia hartmanii Schimp. VC2

Gymnostomum aeruginosum Sm. VC1, VC2

Hygroamblystegium varium (Hedw.) Mönk. VC1 (syn. Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb.)

Hygrohypnum luridum (Hedw.) Jenn. VC1, VC2

Microbryum curvicollum (Hedw.) R.H.Zander VC1 (syn. Phascum curvicolle Hedw.)

Microbryum floerkeanum (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Schimp. VC2

Mnium marginatum (Dicks.) P.Beauv. var. marginatum [VC2] (syn. M. marginatum (With.) P.Beauv. var. marginatum)

Neckera crispa Hedw. VC1, VC2

Orthotrichum rupestre Schleich. ex Schwägr. VC2

Palustriella commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra VC1, VC2 (syn. Cratoneuron commutatum (Hedw.) G.Roth)

Palustriella falcata (Brid.) Hedenäs VC1, VC2 (syn. Cratoneuron commutatum (Hedw.) Roth var. falcatum (Brid.) Mönk., Cratoneuron falcatum (Brid.) G.Roth,

Palustriella commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra var. falcata (Brid.) Ochyra)

Plagiomnium ellipticum (Brid.) T.J.Kop. VC1 (syn. Mnium rugicum Laurer)

Plagiothecium curvifolium Schlieph. ex Limpr. VC2

Plagiothecium latebricola Schimp. VC2

Philonotis calcarea (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimp. VC2

Pohlia elongata Hedw. var. elongata VC2 (syn. P. elongata Hedw. subsp. elongata)

Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) G.L.Sm. VC2 (syn. Polytrichum alpinum Hedw.)

Polytrichastrum longisetum (Sw. ex Brid) G.L.Sm. VC1 (syn. Polytrichum aurantiacum Hoppe ex Brid.,

P. longisetum Sw. ex Brid.)

Racomitrium elongatum Frisvoll VC2 (no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce: Preston, 2006)

Scorpidium cossonii (Schimp.) Hedenäs VC1 (syn. Drepanocladus cossonii (Schimp.) Loeske,

D. revolvens var. intermedius (Lindb.) P.W.Richards & E.C.Wallace)

Sphagnum flexuosum Dozy & Molk. [VC2] (syn. S. recurvum P.Beauv. var. amblyphyllum (Russow) Warnst.): no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. VC2

Sphagnum molle Sull. VC1

Splachnum ampullaceum Hedw. VC2 (Paton, 1969 recorded it as frequent on Bodmin Moor and with two other localities; now probably extinct in Cornwall)

Tortula lanceola R.H.Zander VC1, VC2 (syn. Pottia lanceolata (Hedw.) Müll.Hal.)

Tortula marginata (Bruch & Schimp.) Spruce VC1, VC2

Tortula subulata Hedw. [VC1]

Ulota hutchinsiae (Sm.) Hammar [VC2]

Weissia longifolia Mitt. var. angustifolia (Baumgartner) Crundw. & Nyholm VC1 (syn. W. crispa (Hedw.) Mitt. var. crispa)

11. List of species of mosses included in Red Data Book for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, 1st ed. (1997) but now excluded, other excluded species and species of uncertain status

Achrophyllum dentatum (Hook.f. & Wilson) Vitt & Crosby VC2 a S. Hemisphere species recorded as established in a grotto with filmy-ferns near a waterfall in a large garden at Tregye (SW83E) (Rumsey, 2001).

Anomobryum julaceum (Schrad. ex P.Gaertn. et al.) Schimp. VC1 (syn. A. filiforme (Dicks.) Husn. hom. illeg., A. juliforme sensu Paton, 1969): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Atrichum crispum (James) Sull. [VC1] misidentified.

Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.)Schimp no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Bryum caespiticium Hedw. IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Bryum donianum Grev. IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Bryum dunense A.J.E.Sm. & H.Whitehouse (syn. B. bicolor taxon (b) of Paton, 1969, cf. Paton, 1986): taxon no longer regarded as valid (included in B. dichotomum Hedw. by Holyoak, 2003b).

Bryum elegans Nees (syn. B. capillare var. elegans (Nees) Husn.): misidentified.

Bryum gemmiferum R.Wilczek & Demaret IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Bryum pallescens Schleich. ex Schwägr. no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Campylopus pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. var. azoricus (Mitt.) M.F.V.Corley VC2 no longer regarded as valid taxon (Hill et al., 2008).

Climacium dendroides (Hedw.)F.Weber & D.Mohr IOS, VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Dialytrichia mucronata (Brid.) Broth. VC1, VC2 (syn. Cinclidotus mucronatus (Brid.) Guim.): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Dicranella howei Renauld & Cardot VC2 plants from cliffs at Seaton resemble this common Mediterranean species in having bistratose leaves, but fuller investigation is needed before it is added to the British list.

Dicranum fuscescens Sm. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Didymodon umbrosus (Müll.Hal.)R.H.Zander [IOS, VC1] (syn. D. australasiae var. umbrosus (Müll.Hal.)R.H.Zander, Trichostomopsis umbrosa (Müll.Hal.)H.Rob.) has been recorded from IOS and VC1; however, recent molecular and morphological studies (J. Kučera & D.T. Holyoak, unpublished)show the specimens involved are D. australasiae (Hook. & Grev.) R.H.Zander s.s., a species otherwise unknown in the British Isles.

Didymodon nicholsonii Culm. VC1, VC2 (syn. Barbula nicholsonii Culm.): no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. var. gracilis (Lindb.) Schimp. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Grimmia ramondii (Lam. & DC.)Margad. VC2 (syn. Dryptodon patens (Hedw.) Brid., G. curvata (Brid.) De Sloover, G. patens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Grimmia trichophylla Grev. var. robusta (Ferg.) A.J.E.Sm. [VC1] reports from Sennen Cove were based on G. lisae De Not.

Gymnostomum calcareum Nees & Hornsch. [VC2] misidentified.

Isothecium holtii Kindb. VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Leptodon smithii (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Leptodontium flexifolium (Dicks.)Hampe VC1, VC2 (syn. L. flexifolium (With.) Hampe): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Leucobryum juniperoideum (Brid.)Müll.Hal. VC1, VC2 no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Oligotrichum hercynicum (Hedw.)Lam. & DC. IOS, VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Orthotrichum sprucei Mont. no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).

Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.)T.J.Kop. VC1, VC2 (syn. Mnium cuspidatum Hedw.): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Pogonatum aloides (Hedw.) P.Beauv. var. minimum (Crome) Molendo VC1 no longer regarded as a valid taxon.

Pohlia lescuriana (Sull.) Ochi VC1 (syn. P. pulchella (Hedw.) Lindb.): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Polytrichum strictum Menzies ex Brid. VC2 (syn. P. alpestre Hoppe): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Rhodobryum roseum De Not. VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce (although status may need to be re-assessed because of lack of records in past decade).

Rhynchostegiella teneriffae (Mont.) Dirkse & Bouman VC1, [VC2] (syn. R. teesdalei (Schimp.) Limpr.): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Rhynchostegium murale (Hedw.)Schimp. VC1, VC2 (syn. Eurhynchium murale (Hedw.) Milde): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Sphagnum quinquefarium (Braithw.)Warnst. VC2 no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Syntrichia papillosa (Wilson) Jur. VC1, VC2 (syn. Tortula papillosa Wilson): no longer regarded as Locally Scarce.

Tortula viridifolia (Mitt.) Blockeel & A.J.E.Sm. IOS, VC1, VC2 (syn. Pottia crinita Bruch & Schimp., P. crinita var. viridifolia (Mitt.) Mönk.): no longer regarded as Nationally Scarce (Preston, 2006).