THE BRYOPHYTES OF CORNWALL
AND THE ISLES OF SCILLY


by
David T. Holyoak
     
Introduction -  Hornworts -  Liverworts -  Mosses -  Coastal influences -  Analysis -  Bibliography -  Acknowledgements -  Links -  CISFBR
A B C D F G H J K L M N O P R S T Layout notes Abbreviations People's initials Herbaria Full Text PDF

Liverworts

(MARCHANTIOPHYTA)
Adelanthus
decipiens


Anastrophyllum
minutum


Aneura
mirabilis


Aneura
pinguis


Aphanolejeunea
microscopica


Barbilophozia
attenuata


Barbilophozia
barbata


Barbilophozia
floerkei


Bazzania
trilobata


Blasia
pusilla


Blepharostoma
trichophyllum


Calypogeia
arguta


Calypogeia
fissa


Calypogeia
muelleriana


Calypogeia
sphagnicola


Cephalozia
bicuspidata


Cephalozia
catenulata


Cephalozia
connivens


Cephalozia
leucantha


Cephalozia
lunulifolia


Cephalozia
macrostachya


Cephalozia
macrostachya
var. macrostachya


Cephalozia
pleniceps


Cephaloziella
calyculata


Cephaloziella
dentata


Cephaloziella
divaricata


Cephaloziella
hampeana


Cephaloziella
integerrima


Cephaloziella
massalongi


Cephaloziella
massalongi s. l.


Cephaloziella
nicholsonii


Cephaloziella
rubella


Cephaloziella
spinigera


Cephaloziella
stellulifera


Cephaloziella
turneri


Chiloscyphus
pallescens


Chiloscyphus
polyanthos


Cladopodiella
fluitans


Cladopodiella
francisci


Cololejeunea
minutissima


Colura
calyptrifolia


Conocephalum
conicum s. l.


Conocephalum
conicum s. str.


Diplophyllum
albicans


Diplophyllum
obtusifolium


Douinia
ovata


Drepanolejeunea
hamatifolia


Dumortiera
hirsuta


Fossombronia
angulosa


Fossombronia
caespitiformis


Fossombronia
foveolata


Fossombronia
incurva


Fossombronia
loitlesbergeri


Fossombronia
maritima


Fossombronia
mittenii


Fossombronia
pusilla


Fossombronia
wondraczekii


Frullania
dilatata


Frullania
fragilifolia


Frullania
microphylla
var. microphylla


Frullania
tamarisci


Frullania
teneriffae


Gongylanthus
ericetorum


Gymnocolea
inflata


Gymnomitrion
concinnatum


Gymnomitrion
obtusum


Haplomitrium
hookeri


Harpalejeunea
molleri


Harpanthus
scutatus


Jamesoniella
autumnalis


Jamesoniella
undulifolia


Jubula
hutchinsiae


Jungermannia
atrovirens


Jungermannia
pumila


Kurzia
pauciflora


Kurzia
sylvatica


Kurzia
trichoclados


Leiocolea
badensis


Leiocolea
turbinata


Lejeunea
cavifolia


Lejeunea
lamacerina


Lejeunea
mandonii


Lejeunea
patens


Lepidozia
cupressina


Lepidozia
reptans


Lophocolea
bidentata


Lophocolea
bispinosa


Lophocolea
fragrans


Lophocolea
heterophylla


Lophocolea
semiteres


Lophozia
bicrenata


Lophozia
excisa


Lophozia
incisa


Lophozia
longiflora


Lophozia
sudetica


Lophozia
ventricosa


Lunularia
cruciata


Marchantia
polymorpha


Marchantia
polymorpha
subsp.
polymorpha


Marchantia
polymorpha
subsp.
ruderalis


Marchesinia
mackaii


Marsupella
emarginata
var. emarginata


Marsupella
funckii


Marsupella
profunda


Marsupella
sprucei


Metzgeria
conjugata


Metzgeria
consanguinea


Metzgeria
furcata


Metzgeria
violacea


Microlejeunea
ulicina


Moerckia
flotoviana


Mylia
anomala


Mylia
taylorii


Nardia
compressa


Nardia
geoscyphus


Nardia
scalaris


Nowellia
curvifolia


Odontoschisma
denudatum


Odontoschisma
sphagni


Pellia
endiviifolia


Pellia
epiphylla


Pellia
neesiana


Petalophyllum
ralfsii


Plagiochila
asplenioides


Plagiochila
bifaria


Plagiochila
exigua


Plagiochila
porelloides


Plagiochila
punctata


Plagiochila
spinulosa


Porella
arboris-vitae


Porella
cordaeana


Porella
obtusata


Porella
pinnata


Porella
platyphylla


Ptilidium
ciliare


Radula
complanata


Radula
lindenbergiana


Reboulia
hemisphaerica


Riccardia
chamedryfolia


Riccardia
incurvata


Riccardia
latifrons


Riccardia
multifida


Riccardia
palmata


Riccia
beyrichiana


Riccia
bifurca


Riccia
cavernosa


Riccia
ciliata


Riccia
crozalsii


Riccia
crystallina


Riccia
glauca


Riccia
huebeneriana


Riccia
michelii
var. ciliaris


Riccia
nigrella


Riccia
rhenana


Riccia
sorocarpa


Riccia
subbifurca


Saccogyna
viticulosa


Scapania
compacta


Scapania
curta


Scapania
gracilis


Scapania
irrigua


Scapania
nemorea


Scapania
paludicola


Scapania
scandica


Scapania
subalpina


Scapania
uliginosa


Scapania
umbrosa


Scapania
undulata


Solenostoma
caespiticium


Solenostoma
gracillimum


Solenostoma
hyalinum


Solenostoma
obovatum


Solenostoma
sphaerocarpum


Solenostoma
subellipticum


Southbya
tophacea


Sphaerocarpos
michelii


Sphaerocarpos
texanus


Targionia
hypophylla


Telaranea
europaea


Telaranea
murphyae


Trichocolea
tomentella


Tritomaria
exsectiformis


Tritomaria
quinquedentata


Lophocolea bispinosa (Hook.f. & Taylor) Gottsche et al. ALIEN NR S12

(syn. Chiloscyphus bispinosus (Hook.f. & Taylor) J.J.Engel & R.M.Schust., Lophocolea sp. sensu Paton 1969a: 700). Temperate Suboceanic element.


 


*1: Tresco, 1967, JAP (BBSUK) (Paton 1974b, 1975: 11).

*2: Unshaded on near-horizontal, gravelly, china-clay spoil of sparsely vegetated bank above quarry, Melbur, NW. of St Austell, SW95, 1998, DTH 98-64 (BBSUK, DTH) (Blackstock 1999: 38).

 

First recorded in Isles of Scilly (in and nearAbbey Gardens on Tresco) in 1962 (Paton 1974b, 1999: 392), and present on all five inhabited islands by 1996. A more recent colonist of Cornish mainland, where first recorded in 1997, when it was found to be plentiful over many metres of abandoned trackway near old china clay works at Cold Harbour (vc1). In March 1998 substantial patches were discovered in vc2 over small areas in the St Austell china-clay district at Melbur and Twin Peaks, but soon afterwards it was found to be locally dominant and much the commonest bryophyte over >10 ha of china clay spoil at Stannon on the western slopes of Bodmin Moor. Small patches were found elsewhere in the St Austell china-clay district in 1999, at Melbur and around High Street, Foxhole. Besides the find at Stannon, several substantial to large patches have now been found at other outlying china-clay pits (1999, SE. of Hawk's Tor; 1999, several places NNE. of St Neot).

 

Since 1998 also recorded in vc2 at a few localities away from china-clay workings: at Milltown (SX 114681: 1999, one patch at edge of track surfaced with china-clay spoil); edge of track surfaced with china-clay spoil SE. of Trewarmett (2000); in granite quarries (2001, at De Lank and Hantergantick Quarries); on unshaded edge of cliff-top footpath near Bossiney (JAP pers. comm., 2000); near Lockengate (SX0361, on track, 2005).

 

Colonises bare acidic substrates, forming dense low patches that may become a metre or more across. Widespread on Isles of Scilly by 2003, occurring on variety of humic, acid, often peaty or rocky soils, mainly in open or lightly shaded places, on cliffs, coastal heaths, roadsides, in scrub and in groves of trees. Less common in Scilly than Lophocolea semiteres, and preferring somewhat damper sites, although they sometimes occur together.

 

On mainland, mostly grows on clayey, gritty and gravelly china-clay spoil of banks above working quarries, spoil heaps, about works and depots, and disused tracks and track edges, locally on mica dam edges. Initially colonises mostly sparsely vegetated, unshaded surfaces, but persists at base of grasses and herbs as cover of phanerogams begins to develop, although lost when ground fully shaded with litter layer developing. Less typical habitats: Twin Peaks, vc2: on damp, compressed, sandy soil near unshaded edge of tarmac of road, near china clay quarry. Stannon: bit on china clay spoil in hollows subject to frequent inundation. Near Greensplat in small amount with other bryophytes on old concrete. Rosevear: patch on thin soil on top of mortared-stone wall.

 

Often in pure patches, but at Stannon and elsewhere also associated with virtually all of the bryophytes and small phanerogams of open acid soils, especially Ceratodon purpureus, Nardia scalaris, Pogonatum urnigerum, but also Archidium alternifolium, Atrichum undulatum, Blasia pusilla, Campylopus pyriformis, Cephalozia bicuspidata, Gymnocolea inflata, Solenostoma gracillimum, Lophocolea bidentata, Lophozia incisa Pohlia annotina, Polytrichum piliferum, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Scapania compacta, Scapania irrigua, Pseudoscleropodium purum, low grasses (e.g. Holcus lanatus), low herbs (e.g. Sedum anglicum) and young plants of taller phanerogams (e.g. Agrostis sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica cinerea, Vaccinium myrtillus).

 

Both sexes occur in Isles of Scilly, where sporophytes are reported (maturing 3-5, 8: Paton 1999: 392). All material checked from mainland of Cornwall has proved to be female only (from St Austell area in tetrads: SW95C, 95D, 95H, 95R, 95S, 95U, 95W, 95X, SX05C, 05H, 05I) as were the Hawk's Tor and St Neot plants (SX 17M, 17V).

 

Lophocolea bispinosa was presumably introduced to the Isles of Scilly with horticultural plants from the Southern Hemisphere. Its later spread on the mainland may involve a single clone of female plants. The plants are very brittle and they also produce filiform branches, so dispersal by vehicles in the china-clay districts seems likely, especially as many records are alongside tracks. At least three outlying localities in vc2 are at sites where china-clay spoil has been used to surface tracks.

 

Recorded on mainland cper: 2, 3, 5; female bracts formed but perianths not yet developed 9, 12.

 

L. bispinosa blanketing the ground in floor of a china-clay pit.