THE BRYOPHYTES OF CORNWALL
AND THE ISLES OF SCILLY


by
David T. Holyoak
     
Introduction -  Hornworts -  Liverworts -  Mosses -  Coastal influences -  Analysis -  Bibliography -  Acknowledgements -  Links -  CISFBR
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U W Z Layout notes Abbreviations People's initials Herbaria Full Text PDF

Mosses

(BRYOPHYTA)
Abietinella
abietina
var. abietina


Acaulon
mediterraneum


Acaulon
muticum


Achrophyllum
dentatum


Aloina
aloides s. str.


Aloina
ambigua


Aloina
rigida


Amblystegium
confervoides


Amblystegium
radicale


Amblystegium
serpens
var. salinum


Amblystegium
serpens
var. serpens


Amphidium
mougeotii


Andreaea
rothii


Andreaea
rothii
subsp. falcata


Andreaea
rothii
subsp. rothii


Andreaea
rupestris
var. rupestris


Anoectangium
aestivum


Anomobryum
concinnatum


Anomobryum
julaceum


Anomodon
viticulosus


Antitrichia
curtipendula


Aphanorrhegma
patens


Atrichum
crispum


Atrichum
tenellum


Atrichum
undulatum
var. undulatum


Aulacomnium
androgynum


Aulacomnium
palustre


Barbula
convoluta s. l.


Barbula
convoluta
var. convoluta


Barbula
convoluta
var. sardoa


Barbula
unguiculata


Bartramia
ithyphylla


Bartramia
pomiformis


Blindia
acuta


Brachydontium
trichodes


Brachytheciastrum
velutinum


Brachythecium
albicans


Brachythecium
glareosum


Brachythecium
mildeanum


Brachythecium
rivulare


Brachythecium
rutabulum


Brachythecium
salebrosum


Breutelia
chrysocoma


Bruchia
vogesiaca


Bryoerythrophyllum
ferruginascens


Bryoerythrophyllum
recurvirostrum


Bryum
algovicum
var. rutheanum


Bryum
alpinum


Bryum
apiculatum


Bryum
archangelicum


Bryum
argenteum


Bryum
bornholmense


Bryum
caespiticium


Bryum
calophyllum


Bryum
capillare


Bryum
creberrimum


Bryum
dichotomum


Bryum
dichotomum s. l.


Bryum
donianum


Bryum
dyffrynense


Bryum
elegans


Bryum
gemmiferum


Bryum
gemmiparum


Bryum
intermedium


Bryum
klinggraeffii


Bryum
kunzei


Bryum
moravicum


Bryum
pallens


Bryum
pallescens


Bryum
pseudotriquetrum s.l.


Bryum
pseudotriquetrum
var. bimum


Bryum
pseudotriquetrum
var. pseudotriquetrum


Bryum
radiculosum


Bryum
rubens


Bryum
ruderale


Bryum
sauteri


Bryum
subapiculatum


Bryum
tenuisetum


Bryum
torquescens


Bryum
turbinatum


Bryum
uliginosum


Bryum
valparaisense


Bryum
violaceum


Calliergon
cordifolium


Calliergon
giganteum


Calliergonella
cuspidata


Calliergonella
lindbergii


Calyptrochaeta
apiculata


Campyliadelphus
chrysophyllus


Campyliadelphus
elodes


Campylium
protensum


Campylium
stellatum


Campylopus
atrovirens
var. atrovirens


Campylopus
brevipilus


Campylopus
flexuosus


Campylopus
fragilis


Campylopus
introflexus


Campylopus
pilifer


Campylopus
pyriformis


Campylopus
subulatus


Ceratodon
purpureus


Cinclidotus
fontinaloides


Cirriphyllum
crassinervium


Cirriphyllum
piliferum


Climacium
dendroides


Conardia
compacta


Coscinodon
cribrosus


Cratoneuron
filicinum


Cryphaea
heteromalla


Ctenidium
molluscum s. l.


Ctenidium
molluscum
var. condensatum


Ctenidium
molluscum
var. molluscum


Ctenidium
molluscum
'Woodland Taxon'


Cyclodictyon
laetevirens


Cynodontium
bruntonii


Dendrocryphaea
lamyana


Dialytrichia
mucronata


Dichodontium
flavescens


Dichodontium
palustre


Dichodontium
pellucidum s.l.


Dichodontium
pellucidum s.str.


Dicranella
cerviculata


Dicranella
crispa


Dicranella
heteromalla


Dicranella
howei


Dicranella
rufescens


Dicranella
schreberiana


Dicranella
staphylina


Dicranella
subulata


Dicranella
varia


Dicranodontium
denudatum


Dicranoweisia
cirrata


Dicranoweisia
crispula


Dicranum
bonjeanii


Dicranum
fuscescens s. str.


Dicranum
majus


Dicranum
scoparium


Dicranum
scottianum


Didymodon
acutus


Didymodon
fallax


Didymodon
ferrugineus


Didymodon
insulanus


Didymodon
luridus


Didymodon
nicholsonii


Didymodon
rigidulus


Didymodon
sinuosus


Didymodon
spadiceus


Didymodon
tomaculosus


Didymodon
tophaceus


Didymodon
umbrosus


Didymodon
vinealis


Diphyscium
foliosum


Discelium
nudum


Distichium
capillaceum


Distichium
inclinatum


Ditrichum
cornubicum


Ditrichum
flexicaule s.str.


Ditrichum
gracile


Ditrichum
heteromallum


Ditrichum
lineare


Ditrichum
plumbicola


Ditrichum
pusillum


Ditrichum
subulatum


Drepanocladus
aduncus


Drepanocladus
polygamus


Drepanocladus
sendtneri


Encalypta
streptocarpa


Encalypta
vulgaris


Entosthodon
attenuatus


Entosthodon
fascicularis


Entosthodon
muhlenbergii


Entosthodon
obtusus


Entosthodon
pulchellus


Ephemerum
minutissimum


Ephemerum
serratum


Ephemerum
sessile


Epipterygium
tozeri


Eucladium
verticillatum


Eurhynchiastrum
pulchellum


Eurhynchium
striatum


Fissidens
adianthoides


Fissidens
bryoides
var. bryoides


Fissidens
bryoides
var. caespitans


Fissidens
celticus


Fissidens
crassipes


Fissidens
crispus


Fissidens
curvatus


Fissidens
dubius


Fissidens
exilis


Fissidens
fontanus


Fissidens
incurvus


Fissidens
monguillonii


Fissidens
osmundoides


Fissidens
polyphyllus


Fissidens
pusillus s. str.


Fissidens
rivularis


Fissidens
serrulatus


Fissidens
taxifolius
cf. var. pallidicaulis


Fissidens
taxifolius
var. taxifolius


Fissidens
viridulus


Fontinalis
antipyretica
var. antipyretica


Fontinalis
antipyretica
var. gracilis


Fontinalis
squamosa s. l.


Fontinalis
squamosa
var. curnowii


Fontinalis
squamosa
var. squamosa


Funaria
hygrometrica


Glyphomitrium
daviesii


Grimmia
austrofunalis


Grimmia
crinita


Grimmia
decipiens


Grimmia
funalis


Grimmia
hartmanii


Grimmia
laevigata


Grimmia
lisae


Grimmia
orbicularis


Grimmia
pulvinata


Grimmia
ramondii


Grimmia
trichophylla s. l.


Grimmia
trichophylla s. str.


Gymnostomum
aeruginosum


Gymnostomum
calcareum s. str


Gymnostomum
viridulum


Gyroweisia
tenuis


Hedwigia
stellata


Hennediella
heimii


Hennediella
stanfordensis


Heterocladium
heteropterum
var. flaccidum


Heterocladium
heteropterum
var. heteropterum


Heterocladium
wulfsbergii


Homalia
trichomanoides


Homalothecium
lutescens


Homalothecium
sericeum


Hookeria
lucens


Hygroamblystegium
fluviatile


Hygroamblystegium
tenax


Hygroamblystegium
varium


Hygrohypnum
luridum


Hygrohypnum
ochraceum


Hylocomium
splendens


Hymenostylium
recurvirostrum
var. recurvirostrum


Hyocomium
armoricum


Hypnum
andoi


Hypnum
cupressiforme s. l.


Hypnum
cupressiforme
var. cupressiforme


Hypnum
cupressiforme
var. lacunosum


Hypnum
cupressiforme
var. resupinatum


Hypnum
imponens


Hypnum
jutlandicum


Isothecium
alopecuroides


Isothecium
holtii


Isothecium
myosuroides
var. myosuroides


Kindbergia
praelonga


Leptobarbula
berica


Leptobryum
pyriforme


Leptodictyum
riparium


Leptodon
smithii


Leptodontium
flexifolium


Leptodontium
gemmascens


Leptophascum
leptophyllum


Leptotheca
gaudichaudii


Leskea
polycarpa


Leucobryum
glaucum


Leucobryum
juniperoideum


Leucodon
sciuroides
var. morensis


Leucodon
sciuroides
var. sciuroides


Loeskeobryum
brevirostre


Microbryum
curvicollum


Microbryum
davallianum


Microbryum
floerkeanum


Microbryum
rectum


Microbryum
starckeanum


Mnium
hornum


Mnium
marginatum
var. marginatum


Neckera
complanata


Neckera
crispa


Neckera
pumila


Oligotrichum
hercynicum


Orthodontium
lineare


Orthothecium
intricatum


Orthotrichum
affine


Orthotrichum
anomalum


Orthotrichum
cupulatum


Orthotrichum
diaphanum


Orthotrichum
lyellii


Orthotrichum
pallens


Orthotrichum
pulchellum


Orthotrichum
rivulare


Orthotrichum
rupestre


Orthotrichum
sprucei


Orthotrichum
stramineum


Orthotrichum
striatum


Orthotrichum
tenellum


Oxyrrhynchium
hians


Oxyrrhynchium
pumilum


Oxyrrhynchium
schleicheri


Oxyrrhynchium
speciosum


Palustriella
commutata


Palustriella
falcata


Phascum
cuspidatum s. l.


Phascum
cuspidatum
var. cuspidatum


Phascum
cuspidatum
var. papillosum


Phascum
cuspidatum
var. piliferum


Philonotis
arnellii


Philonotis
caespitosa


Philonotis
calcarea


Philonotis
fontana


Philonotis
rigida


Physcomitrium
pyriforme


Plagiobryum
zieri


Plagiomnium
affine


Plagiomnium
cuspidatum


Plagiomnium
elatum


Plagiomnium
ellipticum


Plagiomnium
rostratum


Plagiomnium
undulatum


Plagiopus
oederianus


Plagiothecium
cavifolium


Plagiothecium
curvifolium


Plagiothecium
denticulatum
var. denticulatum


Plagiothecium
denticulatum
var. obtusifolium


Plagiothecium
latebricola


Plagiothecium
nemorale


Plagiothecium
succulentum


Plagiothecium
undulatum


Platyhypnidium
lusitanicum


Platyhypnidium
riparioides


Pleuridium
acuminatum


Pleuridium
subulatum


Pleurochaete
squarrosa


Pleurozium
schreberi


Pogonatum
aloides


Pogonatum
aloides
var. minimum


Pogonatum
nanum


Pogonatum
urnigerum


Pohlia
andalusica


Pohlia
annotina


Pohlia
annotina s. l.


Pohlia
bulbifera


Pohlia
camptotrachela


Pohlia
drummondii


Pohlia
elongata
var. elongata


Pohlia
filum


Pohlia
flexuosa


Pohlia
lescuriana


Pohlia
lutescens


Pohlia
melanodon


Pohlia
nutans


Pohlia
wahlenbergii
var. calcarea


Pohlia
wahlenbergii
var. wahlenbergii


Polytrichastrum
alpinum


Polytrichastrum
formosum


Polytrichastrum
longisetum


Polytrichum
commune
var. commune


Polytrichum
commune
var. humile


Polytrichum
commune
var. perigoniale


Polytrichum
juniperinum


Polytrichum
piliferum


Polytrichum
strictum


Pottiopsis
caespitosa


Pseudephemerum
nitidum


Pseudocalliergon
lycopodioides


Pseudocrossidium
hornschuchianum


Pseudocrossidium
revolutum


Pseudoscleropodium
purum


Pseudotaxiphyllum
elegans


Pterogonium
gracile


Pterygoneurum
ovatum


Ptychomitrium
polyphyllum


Racomitrium
aciculare


Racomitrium
aquaticum


Racomitrium
ellipticum


Racomitrium
elongatum


Racomitrium
ericoides


Racomitrium
fasciculare


Racomitrium
heterostichum


Racomitrium
heterostichum s. l.


Racomitrium
lanuginosum


Rhabdoweisia
crenulata


Rhabdoweisia
crispata


Rhabdoweisia
fugax


Rhizomnium
punctatum


Rhodobryum
roseum


Rhynchostegiella
curviseta


Rhynchostegiella
litorea


Rhynchostegiella
tenella


Rhynchostegiella
teneriffae


Rhynchostegium
confertum


Rhynchostegium
megapolitanum


Rhynchostegium
murale


Rhytidiadelphus
loreus


Rhytidiadelphus
squarrosus


Rhytidiadelphus
triquetrus


Sanionia
uncinata


Sarmentypnum
exannulatum


Sarmentypnum
sarmentosum


Schistidium
apocarpum s. l.


Schistidium
apocarpum s. str.


Schistidium
crassipilum


Schistidium
maritimum


Schistidium
rivulare


Schistidium
strictum


Schistostega
pennata


Sciuro-hypnum
plumosum


Sciuro-hypnum
populeum


Scleropodium
cespitans


Scleropodium
tourettii


Scopelophila
cataractae


Scorpidium
cossonii


Scorpidium
revolvens s.l.


Scorpidium
revolvens s.str.


Scorpidium
scorpioides


Scorpiurium
circinatum


Sematophyllum
substrumulosum


Sphagnum
palustre
var. palustre


Sphagnum
austinii


Sphagnum
balticum


Sphagnum
capillifolium
subsp. rubellum


Sphagnum
compactum


Sphagnum
contortum


Sphagnum
cuspidatum


Sphagnum
denticulatum


Sphagnum
fallax


Sphagnum
fimbriatum


Sphagnum
flexuosum


Sphagnum
fuscum


Sphagnum
girgensohnii


Sphagnum
inundatum


Sphagnum
magellanicum


Sphagnum
molle


Sphagnum
palustre
var. palustre


Sphagnum
papillosum


Sphagnum
pulchrum


Sphagnum
quinquefarium


Sphagnum
riparium


Sphagnum
squarrosum


Sphagnum
subnitens
var. subnitens


Sphagnum
subsecundum


Sphagnum
tenellum


Splachnum
ampullaceum


Splachnum
sphaericum


Straminergon
stramineum


Syntrichia
laevipila


Syntrichia
latifolia


Syntrichia
montana


Syntrichia
papillosa


Syntrichia
ruralis
var. ruraliformis


Syntrichia
ruralis
var. ruralis


Tetraphis
pellucida


Thamnobryum
alopecurum


Thuidium
delicatulum


Thuidium
tamariscinum


Tortella
flavovirens


Tortella
inclinata


Tortella
nitida


Tortella
tortuosa


Tortula
atrovirens


Tortula
canescens


Tortula
cuneifolia


Tortula
lanceola


Tortula
marginata


Tortula
modica


Tortula
muralis


Tortula
protobryoides


Tortula
solmsii


Tortula
subulata


Tortula
truncata


Tortula
viridifolia


Tortula
wilsonii


Trichodon
cylindricus


Trichostomum
brachydontium


Trichostomum
crispulum


Trichostomum
tenuirostre


Ulota
bruchii


Ulota
calvescens


Ulota
crispa s. str.


Ulota
hutchinsiae


Ulota
phyllantha


Warnstorfia
fluitans


Weissia
brachycarpa
var brachycarpa


Weissia
brachycarpa
var. obliqua


Weissia
condensa


Weissia
controversa
var. controversa


Weissia
controversa
var. crispata


Weissia
controversa
var. densifolia


Weissia
longifolia
var. angustifolia


Weissia
longifolia
var. longifolia


Weissia
multicapsularis


Weissia
perssonii


Weissia
rostellata


Weissia
rutilans


Zygodon
conoideus
var. conoideus


Zygodon
rupestris


Zygodon
viridissimus
var. stirtonii


Zygodon
viridissimus
var. viridissimus


Hymenostylium recurvirostrum (Hedw.) Dixon var. recurvirostrum 1

(syn. Gymnostomum recurvirostrum Hedw.). Boreo-temperate Circumpolar element.


 

 

 

*1: Carpets on heaps of waste, old arsenic mine, Fernysplat Mills, Bissoe, SW. of Truro, Apr. 1962, JAP (BBSUK) (Warburg 1963b: 496, Paton 1969a: 725).

           

In Cornwall this species usually grows as dense low lawns of a distinctive very dark green colour, which often extend over several square metres and locally cover tens of square metres and largely exclude other bryophytes (for atypical growth in large low tufts see below). Habitat notes from Cornwall are as follows. Apparently a calciphile, that appears to be closely associated with substrates rich in copper or arsenic. It grows fully insolated or more often partly to rather heavily shaded (especially at bases of N.-facing walls) on substrates that may be free-draining to rather damp (rarely permanently wet: see below). It occurs on horizontal to vertical masonry e.g. of old walls (on stone, mortar and concrete), thin soil over rocks and masonry, and sometimes more extensively on soils where these receive drainage from old mine buildings (especially those formerly used for sorting metalliferous ores or as arsenic works). Also recorded from old mine-spoil, on banks, paths and tracks on old mining ground, in an old quarry, and around an old smelting works on top of a sea cliff. Single records from low on a church wall and a path near a church might also be associated with metalliferous substrates. Among dunes at Upton Towans it occurs widely on old tracks surfaced with mine-spoil as patches of very low plants. NW. of Reskadinnick it occurs on sparsely vegetated horizontal sand close to concrete of ruins, the sand having been brought here from estuary of Red River for recovery of copper ores. Another atypical site near lower Red River might also be associated with metalliferous residues. Here, H. recurvirostrum formed large low tufts in the edge of a small stream, mixed with some Bryum pseudotriquetrum and close to Philonotis fontana, Equisetum palustre and Juncus effusus. On old mine sites it commonly forms extensive pure patches. Bryum pallescens is sometimes a characteristic associate, growing out of the patches of H. recurvirostrum. Other associates recorded include Didymodon tophaceus.

 

The habitats of H. recurvirostrum in Cornwall contrast markedly with those elsewhere in western Britain and Ireland, where it is known mainly as a calcicole of moist limestone ledges (often in the mountains), occurring also on boulders and limestone pavement, and on hummocks and gravelly ground in calcareous flushes (T.L. Blockeel in Hill et al. 1992: 290). In western Ireland it also occurs on damp calcareous sandstone crags and on damp calcareous sand in dunes (pers. obs.).

 

Not known fertile in Cornwall. Capsules are rare in other parts of British Isles (Blockeel loc. cit.).

 

Near the landward edge of Upton Towans it grows as extensive low patches on pathways that were surfaced with metalliferous mine-spoil during the 1939-45 war, with only a thin layer of compressed blown-sand now covering the mine-spoil. In places it grows there with Petalophyllum ralfsii. Chemical analyses of its substrates show that it can tolerate high levels of Cu, Pb and Zn, and indeed simultaneous presence of all three of these metals at high concentrations. All substrates investigated were basic.

 

Analyses of substrates from localities in Cornwall (metal concentrations given as g/g dry weight):

LOCALITY (N samples)  Cu                           Pb                           Zn                           pH          Source  

Upton Towans, vc1 (7)       251-4499              31-2242                 354-15287            7.1-7.9   Rouen                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (2000)