THE BRYOPHYTES OF CORNWALL
AND THE ISLES OF SCILLY


by
David T. Holyoak
Introduction -  Hornworts -  Liverworts -  Mosses -  Coastal influences -  Analysis -  Bibliography -  Acknowledgements -  Links -  CISFBR

Analysis of changes in bryophyte distribution

 

The detailed data for much of the county resulting from Mrs Paton's work in the 1960s allows fuller assessment of changes in its bryophyte flora over the past 30-40 years than is possible for any other British county. Indeed, no comparable data exist for anywhere else in the world with an equally rich bryoflora. There is now much cause for concern over loss of floristic diversity inBritain and much of western Europe resulting from agricultural intensification, urbanisation and other changes, with global climatic warming also being seen as an increasing threat to biodiversity. The opportunity is therefore taken to analyse the changes in the bryophyte flora of Cornwall and Scilly from the 1960s to the years around 2000, as well as to establish the best possible baseline for judging future changes. This chapter therefore considers the changing bryophyte flora. It attempts to decide which are the decreasing species, the increasing species and introductions, and to measure the extent of changes due to loss and degradation of different habitats.      

  

Detailed records of bryophyte distribution over much of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (C&S) were obtained (mainly) from 1959-1968 by Mrs Jean Paton, and again from 1993-2010 by the present author. The existence of these two sets of data provides an almost unique opportunity to investigate changes in the bryophyte flora over the period of nearly 40 years between surveys.

  

Data on occurrence in tetrads from the two periods have therefore been compared systematically: for 1950-1992 (using a total of 33,943 different 'Old records'), and 1993-2010 (based on 48,532 different 'Recent records'). Table 4 gives the total numbers of Old and Recent records used for each taxon, along with those for Very old records (1791-1949). Table 5 gives indexes of change for each taxon, intended to take account of the larger number of Recent than of Old records. The change index was calculated as: C = (B 0.6994 - A) 100/A (where C = change index, B = number of tetrads with Recent records, A = number of tetrads with Old records). Thus an 'average bryophyte' would show 0% change (C = 0%), a taxon that has become locally extinct would show C = -100%, whereas a taxon recorded from twice as many tetrads by Recent records than by Old records would show C = +39.88%.

  

Taxonomic changes tend to complicate some of the comparisons, but allowance for these has been made by comparing 'aggregate species' of similar taxonomic composition. Thus, Old records of Ditrichum flexuosum s. l. are compared with those for D. gracile, since D. flexuosum s. str. is unknown in C&S. On the other hand, old records of Schistidium apocarpum s. l. are compared with the combined modern records for S. apocarpum s. str. and S. crassipilum, since there are few Old data for the modern segregate species (and no related species of this group are known in C&S).

  

A small increase has occurred in the total number of taxa recognised in Recent than in Old Records, but the effects of this on the change index are small since mainly uncommon species have been 'split' and the number of additional alien species becoming established since the 1960s is small and all of those have remained rare. Of course, removal (as duplicates) of Old records of taxa that are now synonymised with others (e.g. Lophocolea cuspidata now included in L. bidentata; var. lammersiana now included in Cephalozia bicuspidata; var. stokesii now included in Kindbergia praelonga) does nothing to affect the change indexes.

  

The change indexes are of little value for rare species. This is mainly because almost all rarities have been deliberately sought after during both Recent and Old periods of fieldwork, commonly involving prolonged targeted searches and deliberately revisiting old localities. Hence, down-scaling the Recent tetrad totals by a factor of 0.6994 is usually inappropriate (and would result in taxa persisting at a single locality receiving a misleading change index of C = -30.06%). Small changes in the tetrad counts also tend to result in large differences in change indexes (e.g. a new discovery in a second tetrad gives C = +39.88%). Table 5 therefore lists rare species (those with fewer than ten Recent and Old records) separately. The species accounts should be consulted for full details of status changes of these rarities, which are usually understood in greater depth than can be conveyed by a simple change index.

  

Several of the changes revealed by the change indexes are not surprising, especially with species that show increases. The expanding ranges of the aliens Campylopus introflexus (+329%) and more recently of Lophocolea bispinosa (+329%) have already attracted the attention of bryologists in Cornwall. Similarly, increased frequency and range expansions have been noticed for the native species Cololejeunea minutissima (+220%), Colura calyptrifolia (+235%) and Didymodon nicholsonii (+3624%), although the last of these may have been somewhat overlooked in the past like other rather nondescript species of Didymodon. However, large increases of other species have attracted little or no attention, notably of Zygodon conoideus (+169%), Didymodon vinealis (+265%, but perhaps sometimes overlooked earlier), Didymodon sinuosus (+299%), Cephalozia integerrima (+389%) and Orthotrichum cupulatum (+774%). Decreases have attracted even less attention, although the extinction of Splachnum ampullaceum (-100%) had not passed unnoticed. Very large declines are also apparent in Fissidens curvatus (-92%), Jungermannia pumila (-90%), Bryum archangelicum (-89%), Frullania teneriffae (-87%), Drepanocladus sendtneri (-86%), Weissia rutilans (-85%), Leiocolea turbinata (-85%), Breutelia chrysocoma (-85%), Rhabdoweisia fugax (-85%), Solenostoma hyalinum (-84%), Warnstorfia fluitans (-84%), Racomitrium aquaticum (-82%) and Hygroamblystegium fluviatile (-82%). In fact, excluding rarities, 93 taxa (nearly 15% of the total recorded bryoflora) show decreases of more than 50%, whereas 49 taxa show increases of >50%.

  

The change indexes therefore reveal a surprisingly dynamic bryoflora at tetrad scale over the 30-40 year timescale studied. Nevertheless, it is reassuring that a majority of species have change indexes within 30% above or below zero, and some common and characteristic species are within 5% of zero change (Calypogeia arguta, Campylopus flexuosus, Dicranum scoparium, Eurhynchium striatum, Hypnum jutlandicum, Neckera complanata, Thuidium tamariscinum), despite presence of many gaps in their tetrad ranges which might have shown changes.

  

Before analysing patterns of increase or decrease of species in different habitats, it is necessary to consider possible systematic biases in the methodology of data collection. In particular, it is necessary to consider the possibility of data being collected in systematically different ways for Old and Recent records. This investigation of likely biases is made easier because nearly all of the Old records were collected by Mrs Paton and a large majority of the Recent records were collected by the present author (DTH). Since 1993, days of fieldwork together and many detailed discussions have pointed out both differences and similarities in the way data was collected during each period of time. Besides the obvious bryophyte habitats in woodland, on heathland, on rocky tors, in Sphagnum-rich mires, on sand dunes and on sea-cliffs, we have both spent large amounts of time examining metalliferous mine-spoil, quarries, arable fields (especially stubbles), churchyards, reservoir inundation zones and countless more mundane places in roadside verges, floristically poor grassland, tarmac edges of lanes and in car parks. We have both visited most of the localities in the county already known for rare bryophytes and many of those known for rare vascular plants, as well as visiting every hectad and making repeated trips to the Isles of Scilly.

  

The following are thought to be the more significant differences in our coverage:

(1) Liverworts and hornworts were expertly recorded by Mrs Paton throughout her fieldwork. Indeed, she was the British Bryological Society Recorder of Hepatics throughout the period when she was most active in Cornwall. In contrast, DTH recorded only mosses in 1993-4, starting to identify liverworts with assistance from Mrs Paton in 1995. Parts of vc1 in which liverworts were not recorded during 1993-4 were all subsequently revisited to record them, but there is no doubt that liverworts were less well covered than mosses for several more years. A tendency for many of the scarcer liverworts to have change indexes showing decline may result in part from this bias, although marked increases of some such as Cephaloziella integerrima, Cololejeunea minutissima and Microlejeunea ulicina show it is far from universal. Overall, excluding rarities, liverworts and hornworts have mean C = -16.92% (n = 102), so this bias does not have a large effect.

(2) Mrs Paton's fieldwork tended to focus on moist or wet habitats rich in liverworts. Dry calcareous walls and concrete received less attention, so mosses such as Grimmia pulvinata, Schistidium apocarpum s. l. and some Pottiaceae tended to accumulate relatively few records (so they show artificially high change indexes). The proportion of time spent searching for epiphytes may also have been less than during the recent fieldwork.

(3) Mrs Paton visited a larger proportion of localities (tetrads) in vc2, working from a home-base in Truro and later Probus, whereas DTH covered vc1 more intensively from a base near Camborne. The relative scarcity of recent records of e.g. Porella platyphylla may result partly from lack of recent recording within parts of its range in vc2.

(4) Mrs Paton was mainly concerned to accumulate hectad records for the first national bryophyte atlas (Hill et al. 1991-1994). The goal was therefore to find as many species as possible in each hectad, rather than to record every locality (or tetrad) fully. Hence some of the commonest species may have been left unrecorded after the first few sites were visited in each hectad, perhaps resulting in artificially high change indexes for some of them (e.g. Kindbergia praelonga 21%, Isothecium myosuroides 27%, Ulota phyllantha 31%, Bryum argenteum 42%, Bryum capillare 52%). However, mean C for all species with more than 200 Old hectad records was +10.29% (n = 52), so this bias did not have a large effect overall.

  

Change indexes were analysed for species from different habitat types, excluding rarities. Most species were assigned to a habitat type (distinguished by letters A to M in Table 5) where all or a large proportion of the records in C&S were made (see species accounts). Species occurring across a wide range of habitats (e.g. Kindbergia praelonga) or characteristic of only a peculiar specialised habitat (e.g. Nowellia curvifolia on rotting wood; Schistidium maritimum on coastal rocks) were not assigned or analysed. Mean Change indexes were then calculated using data from all species assigned to the habitat type, with results as follows:

A Soil in arable fields and gardens; mean C = +30.80%

            (after exclusion of Dicranella staphylina, which was incompletely recorded            among the Old records because it was not named until 1969)

B Open coastal cliffs, cliff tops and slopes (mainly on soil); mean C = -49.46%

            (after exclusion of Fossombronia incurva, which was probably overlooked in         C&S prior to its first record in 1972; it also often occurs inland)

C Coastal sand, mainly on dunes; mean C = +5.15%

D Woodland; mean C = -12.55%

E Epiphytes; mean C = +53.27%

F Base-poor rock; mean C = -46.78%

G Basic masonry (e.g. walls or concrete); mean C = +115.91%

H Acidic mires; mean C = -38.22%

I Basic flushes and mires; mean C = -60.40%

J Aquatic, near-aquatic and inundation-zone habitats; mean C = -15.78%

K Other basic habitats; mean C = +9.29%

L Other acidic habitats; mean C = +8.36%

M Metallophytes associated with old copper mines; mean C = +78.30%

            (but most of the increase was contributed by just three species showing large          increases: Cephaloziella integerrima, Bryum pallescens and Hymenostylium   recurvirostrum).

  

Overall, there appears to have been little change in the extent of ranges of bryophyte species characteristic of coastal sand, woodland, aquatic habitats, or of varied assortments of both basic and acidic habitats. Apparent increases in epiphytic bryophyte species and especially those of basic masonry are likely to result mainly from increased recording effort in those habitat types, as discussed under (2) above. The same may apply to bryophytes of soil in arable fields and gardens, where small mosses may have been somewhat under-recorded in the Old records.

  

The apparent increase in metallophytes is likely to be an artefact resulting from a massive targeted recording effort with Recent records, with ca 120 disused mine sites in Cornwall being surveyed in detail with funding from English Nature (e.g. Holyoak 2000). Furthermore, much of the increase in the mean Change index for the habitat type is due to large increases shown by just three species, as noted above. The true picture is likely to have involved losses rather than gains of populations of most metallophyte bryophytes, as more metalliferous mine spoil has been shaded by scrub and saplings or lost to development over the past four decades than has been created or newly exposed.

  

Losses of bryophytes of mire habitats (averaging -38.22% for acidic mires, -60.40% for basic mires and flushes) are certainly genuine. Substantial recording of bryophytes of Sphagnum-rich mires was funded by English Nature from 1997-2005 (Holyoak, unpublished reports). Of 47 areas of mire vegetation surveyed in detail, damage was recorded due to recent drainage (affecting 2 mires from 1999-2003, including a SSSI), over-grazing or poaching associated with high stocking levels (9 mires), under-grazing or cessation of grazing (all or part of 8 mires; leading to development of tall Molinia and eventually scrub or woodland), nutrient-enrichment (5 mires). Between the 1960s and 1997 mires had also been lost to afforestation with conifers and creation of reservoirs. The greatest losses of mires appear to have occurred away from the main heathland areas on Bodmin Moor, especially affecting small mires and flushes in farmland landscapes overlying Devonian slates, which included more basic flushes than exist on the granite of Bodmin Moor. Even the wet heath areas overlying serpentinite on protected land on the Lizard Peninsula have suffered, largely from under-grazing or fires.

  

Losses of bryophytes from open coastal cliffs, cliff tops and slopes, mainly of plants growing on soil, also appear to be genuine. Several rarities which were not included in calculation of the mean Change index also appear to have declined in these habitats (Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum, Riccia bifurca, R. nigrella), while decline of Tortula cuneifolia began long before the 1960s. Even since 1993 there has been a conspicuous increase in scrub and other tall vegetation on and above coastal cliffs, as a continuing response to cessation of grazing decades ago.

  

Finally, the mean Change index implies a considerable decrease has occurred in bryophytes of base-poor rock (-46.78%), mainly granite, a habitat that has been well searched since 1992. Inspection of tetrad maps for some of the declining species (Andreaea rothii, Racomitrium aquaticum, R. fasciculare) shows they have suffered a much greater decline in vc1 and lowland parts of vc2 than on the uplands of Bodmin Moor. However, Bodmin Moor may now have lost its populations of Grimmia ramondii and it apparently lost Ulota hutchinsiae before the 1960s. Also, a sustained long term decline since the nineteenth century is evident throughout Cornwall for a few rupestral species (Grimmia decipiens, G. laevigata). It is tempting to attribute the recent losses of acidophilous rupestral mosses from lowland areas of Cornwall to pollution, possibly air-borne, since little else seems to have changed. Historically, parts of Cornwall undoubtedly suffered serious atmospheric pollution from mine chimneys, but it virtually escaped the sulphur dioxide pollution that affected much of central and eastern England, causing extensive losses of epiphytic lichens (e.g. Hawksworth & Rose 1976, Gilbert 2000) and bryophytes (Bates et al. 1997). There are now concerns that nitrogen-based pollutants are increasing, originating e.g. from fertilisers, dairying and vehicle emissions. Mitchell et al. (2004) demonstrated that increased nitrogen has a detrimental effect on growth of epiphytic bryophytes, but there is little information for saxicolous species (cf. Farmer et al. 1992). Further investigation is needed to assess whether nitrogen or other pollutants is involved in the decline of saxicolous bryophytes in Cornwall.

 

TABLE 4. Total numbers of different hectad records for Cornwall and Isles of Scilly

in each age class.

 

Taxon                                                                                       Recent       Old          Very old

                                                                                                   1993          1950        1791

                                                                                                   -2010         -1992      -1949

 

Abietinella abietina var. abietina                                      4                 2               3                   

Acaulon mediterraneum                                                       5                 1               1                   

Acaulon muticum s. l. ADDITIONAL                                 5                 11            6

Acaulon muticum s. str.                                                         10               5               0

Achrophyllum dentatum                                                       1                 0               0

Adelanthus decipiens                                                            1                 0               0

Aloina aloides s. l. ADDITIONAL                                      3                 52            31

Aloina aloides s. str.                                                              40               3               0

Aloina ambigua                                                                      5                 0               0

Amblystegium confervoides                                                 0                 0               1

Amblystegium radicale                                                         2                 1               0

Amblystegium serpens var. salinum                                    23               12            2

Amblystegium serpens var. serpens                                    511             223          10

Amphidium mougeotii                                                           8                 15            8

Andreaea rothii ADDITIONAL                                          31               34            19

Andreaea rothii subsp. falcata                                            7                 1               10

Andreaea rothii subsp. rothii                                              5                 1               3

Andreaea rupestris var. rupestris                                       0                 0               1

Aneura mirabilis                                                                    0                 1               0

Aneura pinguis                                                                       91               104          1

Anomobryum julaceum                                                         2                 3               2

Anomodon viticulosus                                                           15               38            11

Anthoceros agrestis                                                               5                 16            1                   

Anthoceros punctatus                                                           39               109          7

Antitrichia curtipendula                                                      2                 4               4

Aphanorrhegma patens                                                        20               15            0

Archidium alternifolium                                                       143             119          3

Atrichum tenellum                                                                  13               4               0

Atrichum undulatum                                                              470             283          4

Aulacomnium androgynum                                                  2                 0               1

Aulacomnium palustre                                                          65               68            10

Barbilophozia attenuata                                                      7                 15            3

Barbilophozia barbata                                                         1                 1               0

Barbilophozia floerkei                                                          1                 1               0

Barbula convoluta ADDITIONAL                                     418             283          3

Barbula convoluta var. convoluta                                     362             164          0

Barbula convoluta var. sardoa                                           319             71            0

Barbula unguiculata                                                             454             239          4

Bartramia ithyphylla                                                             0                 1               0

Bartramia pomiformis                                                           22               49            14

Bazzania trilobata                                                                 9                 21            6

Blasia pusilla                                                                          15               28            11

Blepharostoma trichophyllum                                             0                 1               2

Blindia acuta                                                                          11               9               3

Brachydontium trichodes                                                     3                 2               0

Brachytheciastrum velutinum                                              17               17            7

Brachythecium albicans                                                       146             113          4

Brachythecium glareosum                                                    9                 8               1

Brachythecium mildeanum                                                   42               26            6

Brachythecium rivulare                                                        307             237          2

Brachythecium rutabulum                                                    609             341          4

Breutelia chrysocoma                                                           6                 28            10

Bruchia vogesiaca                                                                 1                 0               0

Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens                                  4                 0               0

Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum                                  170             147          3

Bryum algovicum var. rutheanum                                       13               21            5

Bryum alpinum                                                                       57               69            27

Bryum apiculatum                                                                  4                 0               0

Bryum archangelicum                                                           7                 45            10

Bryum argenteum                                                                   392             193          7

Bryum bornholmense                                                             45               3               0

Bryum caespiticium                                                               2                 4               6

Bryum capillare                                                                      585             269          5

Bryum dichotomum                                                                514             254          5

Bryum donianum                                                                    108             47            3

Bryum dyffrynense                                                                 1                 0               0

Bryum gemmiferum                                                                6                 1               0

Bryum intermedium                                                                0                 1               2

Bryum klinggraeffii                                                               22               14            0                   

Bryum kunzei                                                                           1                 0               0

Bryum pallens                                                                         43               81            5

Bryum pallescens                                                                   19               4               4

Bryum pseudotriquetrum ADDITIONAL                          105             93            4

Bryum pseudotriquetrum var. bimum                                 1                 4               3

Bryum pseudotriquetrum var. pseudotriquetrum             5                 3               0

Bryum radiculosum                                                                277             74            2

Bryum rubens                                                                          317             158          0

Bryum ruderale                                                                       136             41            1

Bryum sauteri                                                                          62               63            0

Bryum subapiculatum                                                           86               75            1

Bryum tenuisetum                                                                   1                 4               0

Bryum torquescens                                                                 12               2               3

Bryum valparaisense                                                             2                 0               0

Bryum violaceum                                                                    42               11            0                   

Calliergon cordifolium                                                         25               28            6

Calliergon giganteum                                                           0                 2               0

Calliergonella cuspidata                                                     518             300          4

Calliergonella lindbergii                                                     35               35            11

Calypogeia arguta                                                                298             211          9

Calypogeia fissa                                                                    289             262          6

Calypogeia muelleriana                                                       41               59            3

Calypogeia sphagnicola                                                      2                 2               0

Calyptrochaeta apiculata                                                    1                 1               0

Campyliadelphus chrysophyllus                                         9                 13            7

Campyliadelphus elodes                                                      2                 1               1

Campylium protensum                                                          9                 7               7

Campylium stellatum                                                             43               67            14

Campylopus atrovirens var. atrovirens                             11               21            15

Campylopus brevipilus                                                         23               49            12

Campylopus flexuosus                                                          171             115          8

Campylopus fragilis                                                              130             125          4

Campylopus introflexus                                                        411             67            0

Campylopus pilifer                                                                14               18            8

Campylopus pyriformis                                                         94               73            9

Campylopus subulatus                                                          3                 7               0

Cephalozia bicuspidata                                                       251             251          6

Cephalozia catenulata                                                         1                 6               0

Cephalozia connivens                                                           26               31            4

Cephalozia leucantha                                                           1                 6               0

Cephalozia lunulifolia                                                         11               33            3

Cephalozia macrostachya ADDITIONAL                        0                 2               0

Cephalozia macrostachya var. macrostachya                 1                 2               0

Cephalozia pleniceps                                                            0                 3               0

Cephaloziella calyculata                                                     5                 9               4

Cephaloziella dentata                                                          1                 2               1

Cephaloziella divaricata                                                     102             140          5

Cephaloziella hampeana                                                     55               70            4

Cephaloziella integerrima                                                   14               2               0

Cephaloziella massalongi s. l. ADDITIONAL                 0                 17            4

Cephaloziella massalongi s. str.                                         23               8               3

Cephaloziella nicholsonii                                                    34               13            3

Cephaloziella spinigera                                                       1                 6               1

Cephaloziella stellulifera                                                    90               68            4

Cephaloziella turneri                                                            8                 14            1

Ceratodon purpureus                                                            506             305          2

Chiloscyphus pallescens                                                      32               45            5

Chiloscyphus polyanthos s. l. ADDITIONAL                  31               2               0

Chiloscyphus polyanthos s. str.                                           92               115          5

Cinclidotus fontinaloides                                                    20               24            3

Cirriphyllum crassinervium                                                 37               30            8

Cirriphyllum piliferum                                                          88               89            7

Cladopodiella fluitans                                                         7                 14            0

Cladopodiella francisci                                                       4                 15            5

Climacium dendroides                                                          6                 5               2

Cololejeunea minutissima                                                    234             51            8

Colura calyptrifolia                                                              24               5               2

Conardia compacta                                                               1                 0               0

Conocephalum conicum s. l. ADDITIONAL                    165             212          4

Conocephalum conicum s. str.                                             54               0               0

Coscinodon cribrosus                                                           5                 3               0

Cratoneuron filicinum                                                          315             190          6

Cryphaea heteromalla                                                          391             178          3

Ctendium molluscum 'Woodland Taxon'                           23               0               0

Ctenidium molluscum ADDITIONAL                                14               85            14

Ctenidium molluscum var. condensatum                           2                 1               0

Ctenidium molluscum var. molluscum                               13               0               0

Cyclodictyon laetevirens                                                      1                 0               1

Cynodontium bruntonii                                                        8                 19            4

Dendrocryphaea lamyana                                                    7                 2               0

Dialytrichia mucronata                                                        9                 1               0

Dichodontium flavescens                                                     2                 1               0

Dichodontium palustre                                                         3                 8               3

Dichodontium pellucidum s. l. ADDITIONAL                 16               38            10

Dichodontium pellucidum s. str.                                         5                 0               0

Dicranella cerviculata                                                          0                 0               3

Dicranella crispa                                                                   1                 3               3

Dicranella heteromalla                                                        450             178          3

Dicranella rufescens                                                             54               54            3

Dicranella schreberiana                                                      147             61            4                   

Dicranella staphylina                                                           252             42            0                   

Dicranella subulata                                                              8                 11            1

Dicranella varia                                                                     280             118          6

Dicranodontium denudatum                                                1                 1               0

Dicranoweisia cirrata                                                           113             71            4

Dicranum bonjeanii                                                              13               33            9

Dicranum fuscescens                                                             1                 4               1

Dicranum majus                                                                     52               92            4

Dicranum scoparium                                                             378             275          8

Dicranum scottianum                                                            10               18            13

Didymodon acutus                                                                 12               2               2

Didymodon australasiae s. l. ADDITIONAL                    3                 0               0

Didymodon australasiae s. str.                                            5                 0               0

Didymodon fallax                                                                  117             88            5

Didymodon ferrugineus                                                        21               5               3

Didymodon insulanus                                                           562             244          4

Didymodon luridus                                                                172             48            1

Didymodon nicholsonii                                                        213             4               0

Didymodon rigidulus                                                            399             129          2

Didymodon sinuosus                                                             40               7               1

Didymodon tomaculosus                                                      5                 0               0

Didymodon tophaceus                                                          290             161          3

Didymodon umbrosus                                                            4                 0               0

Didymodon vinealis                                                               94               18            4

Diphyscium foliosum                                                             28               46            12

Diplophyllum albicans                                                         296             279          4

Diplophyllum obtusifolium                                                  4                 12            0

Discelium nudum                                                                    1                 4               0

Distichium capillaceum                                                        2                 0               0

Distichium inclinatum                                                           2                 0               0

Ditrichum cornubicum                                                          3                 3               0

Ditrichum flexicaule s. l. ADDITIONAL                           0                 15            8

Ditrichum gracile                                                                   14               2               0

Ditrichum heteromallum                                                       37               58            10

Ditrichum lineare                                                                   2                 0               0

Ditrichum plumbicola                                                           1                 0               0

Ditrichum pusillum                                                                1                 0               0

Ditrichum subulatum                                                             5                 20            5

Douinia ovata                                                                         3                 5               2

Drepanocladus aduncus                                                       43               38            11

Drepanocladus polygamus                                                  8                 5               1

Drepanocladus sendtneri                                                     2                 10            7

Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia                                             1                 1               0

Dumortiera hirsuta                                                                5                 4               0

Encalypta streptocarpa                                                        15               20            8

Encalypta vulgaris                                                                1                 2               0

Entosthodon attenuatus                                                       17               28            16

Entosthodon fascicularis                                                     22               53            11                 

Entosthodon muhlenbergii s. l.  ADDITIONAL               0                 1               2

Entosthodon obtusus                                                             52               56            20

Entosthodon pulchellus                                                        0                 1               0

Ephemerum minutissimum                                                    56               18            0                   

Ephemerum serratum s. l.                                                      21               5               2

Ephemerum serratum s. str.                                                  21               21            0

Ephemerum sessile                                                                 9                 5               1

Epipterygium tozeri                                                               181             146          4

Eucladium verticillatum                                                       28               46            14

Eurhynchium striatum                                                           337             234          4

Fissidens adianthoides                                                         73               79            10

Fissidens bryoides var. bryoides                                         453             290          4

Fissidens bryoides var. caespitans                                     151             86            9

Fissidens celticus                                                                   52               49            0

Fissidens crassipes                                                                5                 17            1

Fissidens crispus                                                                    42               18            1

Fissidens curvatus                                                                 1                 9               0

Fissidens dubius                                                                     80               83            5

Fissidens exilis                                                                       30               26            2

Fissidens fontanus                                                                 4                 0               0

Fissidens incurvus                                                                 42               53            0

Fissidens monguillonii                                                         3                 0               0

Fissidens osmundoides                                                         4                 13            3

Fissidens polyphyllus                                                            10               18            11

Fissidens pusillus                                                                   28               15            0

Fissidens rivularis                                                                 7                 6               0

Fissidens serrulatus                                                               1                 1               1

Fissidens taxifolius cf. var. pallidicaulis                          1                 0               0

Fissidens taxifolius var. taxifolius                                     386             229          4

Fissidens viridulus s. l. ADDITIONAL                              7                 163          4

Fissidens viridulus s. str.                                                      123             9               0

Fontinalis antipyretica var. antipyretica                         72               80            16

Fontinalis antipyretica var. gracilis                                  6                 3               1

Fontinalis squamosa ADDITIONAL                                 52               53            13

Fontinalis squamosa var. curnowii                                    3                 4               1

Fontinalis squamosa var. squamosa                                  3                 2               1

Fossombronia angulosa                                                       13               26            17

Fossombronia caespitiformis ADDITIONAL                   16               11            3

Fossombronia caespitiformis subsp. multispira              8                 0               0

Fossombronia foveolata                                                       2                 3               1

Fossombronia husnotii                                                         19               40            3

Fossombronia incurva                                                          18               8               0

Fossombronia maritima                                                        12               23            2

Fossombronia pusilla s. l. ADDITIONAL                         0                 116          4

Fossombronia pusilla s. str.                                                 79               3               0

Fossombronia wondraczekii                                                32               48            3

Frullania dilatata                                                                  539             342          5

Frullania fragilifolia                                                            15               21            13

Frullania microphylla var. microphylla                           19               42            11

Frullania tamarisci                                                               185             248          15

Frullania teneriffae                                                               3                 17            4

Funaria hygrometrica                                                           257             206          3

Glyphomitrium daviesii                                                        0                 0               1

Gongylanthus ericetorum                                                     8                 8               1

Grimmia crinita                                                                      1                 0               0

Grimmia decipiens                                                                 1                 1               10

Grimmia hartmanii                                                                3                 0               0

Grimmia laevigata                                                                 1                 2               4

Grimmia lisae                                                                          30               10            8

Grimmia orbicularis                                                              7                 0               0

Grimmia pulvinata                                                                 299             138          4

Grimmia ramondii                                                                  0                 5               3

Grimmia trichophylla s. l. ADDITIONAL                         218             135          11

Grimmia trichophylla s. str.                                                 58               2               2

Gymnocolea inflata                                                               96               85            6

Gymnomitrion concinnatum                                                0                 1               0

Gymnomitrion obtusum                                                         0                 1               0

Gymnostomum aeruginosum                                                4                 0               2

Gymnostomum calcareum s. l. ADDITIONAL                  0                 2               0

Gymnostomum viridulum                                                      28               9               1

Gyroweisia tenuis                                                                  47               12            0

Haplomitrium hookeri                                                           0                 1               3

Harpalejeunea molleri                                                          1                 2               1

Harpanthus scutatus                                                             0                 1               0

Hedwigia ciliata s. l. ADDITIONAL                                  8                 57            19

Hedwigia stellata                                                                   42               0               0

Hennediella heimii                                                                14               39            10

Hennediella stanfordensis                                                   3                 12            0

Heterocladium heteropterum s. l. ADDITIONAL            3                 90            16

Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum                    24               25            2

Heterocladium heteropterum var. heteropterum             58               3               0

Heterocladium wulfsbergii                                                  16               2               3

Homalia trichomanoides                                                      102             109          6

Homalothecium lutescens                                                     43               33            8

Homalothecium sericeum                                                     396             244          4

Hookeria lucens                                                                     219             174          5

Hygroamblystegium fluviatile                                             11               45            4

Hygroamblystegium tenax                                                    14               7               4

Hygroamblystegium varium                                                 1                 0               0

Hygrohypnum luridum                                                          4                 0               0

Hygrohypnum ochraceum                                                    62               50            13

Hylocomium splendens                                                         90               104          14

Hymenostylium recurvirostrum var. recurvirostrum       21               9               0

Hyocomium armoricum                                                         50               44            9

Hypnum andoi                                                                        440             122          2

Hypnum cupressiforme s. l. ADDITIONAL                       8                 58            13

Hypnum cupressiforme var. cupressiforme                       216             7               1

Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum                             260             161          4

Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum                          583             309          2

Hypnum jutlandicum                                                             363             254          5

Isothecium alopecuroides                                                    140             120          3

Isothecium holtii                                                                    8                 8               0

Isothecium myosuroides var. myosuroides                        495             271          4

Jamesoniella autumnalis                                                      0                 1               0

Jamesoniella undulifolia                                                     5                 4               1

Jubula hutchinsiae                                                                4                 3               2

Jungermannia atrovirens                                                     0                 3               3

Jungermannia pumila                                                           3                 21            1

Kindbergia praelonga                                                          647             374          9

Kurzia pauciflora s. l. ADDITIONAL                                3                 21            6

Kurzia pauciflora s. str.                                                        22               27            4

Kurzia sylvatica                                                                     13               18            0

Kurzia trichoclados                                                               2                 3               0

Leiocolea badensis                                                                0                 2               1

Leiocolea turbinata                                                               6                 29            6

Lejeunea cavifolia                                                                 61               67            0

Lejeunea lamacerina                                                             248             222          1

Lejeunea mandonii                                                                4                 4               2

Lejeunea patens                                                                     6                 1               0

Lepidozia cupressina                                                            7                 6               2

Lepidozia reptans                                                                  57               76            11

Leptobarbula berica                                                             3                 1               0

Leptobryum pyriforme                                                           20               23            9

Leptodictyum riparium                                                         89               50            6

Leptodon smithii                                                                    7                 4               15

Leptodontium flexifolium                                                     1                 6               3

Leptodontium gemmascens                                                  1                 0               0

Leptophascum leptophyllum                                                7                 2               0

Leptotheca gaudichaudii                                                     2                 0               0

Leskea polycarpa                                                                   32               31            4

Leucobryum glaucum s. l. ADDITIONAL                         7                 74            10

Leucobryum glaucum s. str.                                                  41               6               0

Leucobryum juniperoideum                                                 25               6               0

Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis                                    4                 0               0

Leucodon sciuroides var. sciuroides                                  10               10            9

Loeskeobryum brevirostre                                                    35               30            12

Lophocolea bidentata                                                           521             314          7

Lophocolea bispinosa                                                           43               7               0

Lophocolea fragrans                                                             14               9               1

Lophocolea heterophylla                                                     216             170          2

Lophocolea semiteres                                                            24               7               0

Lophozia bicrenata                                                               39               37            1

Lophozia excisa                                                                      32               55            2

Lophozia incisa                                                                      33               26            0

Lophozia sudetica                                                                  5                 3               2

Lophozia ventricosa                                                              95               84            7

Lunularia cruciata                                                                354             209          3

Marchantia polymorpha ADDITIONAL                           2                 10            8

Marchantia polymorpha subsp. polymorpha                   2                 3               0

Marchantia polymorpha subsp. ruderalis                        14               6               0

Marchesinia mackaii                                                             8                 17            8

Marsupella emarginata var. emarginata                          66               65            8

Marsupella funckii                                                                1                 3               2

Marsupella profunda                                                            18               3               0

Marsupella sprucei                                                                24               5               0

Metzgeria conjugata                                                             5                 15            2

Metzgeria consanguinea                                                      251             46            2

Metzgeria fruticulosa s. l.                                                     1                 217          4

Metzgeria furcata                                                                  510             322          6

Metzgeria violacea                                                                313             42            1

Microbryum curvicollum                                                      0                 1               0

Microbryum davallianum                                                     27               36            6

Microbryum floerkeanum                                                     1                 0               0

Microbryum rectum                                                               48               47            13

Microbryum starckeanum                                                     13               29            3

Microlejeunea ulicina                                                          257             167          3

Mnium hornum                                                                       505             323          6

Mnium marginatum var. marginatum                                0                 0               1

Moerckia flotoviana                                                              0                 0               2

Mylia anomala                                                                       21               12            2

Mylia taylorii                                                                          0                 1               0

Nardia compressa                                                                  2                 5               1

Nardia scalaris                                                                       131             157          4

Neckera complanata                                                             267             192          3

Neckera crispa                                                                        0                 1               4

Neckera pumila                                                                      206             164          2

Nowellia curvifolia                                                               18               15            0

Odontoschisma denudatum                                                  6                 6               0

Odontoschisma sphagni                                                       37               26            7

Oligotrichum hercynicum                                                     14               8               3

Orthodontium lineare                                                           22               9               0

Orthotrichum affine                                                               374             137          3

Orthotrichum anomalum                                                      115             57            5

Orthotrichum cupulatum                                                      25               2               0

Orthotrichum diaphanum                                                     355             128          5

Orthotrichum lyellii                                                               24               21            3

Orthotrichum pulchellum                                                     225             93            10

Orthotrichum rivulare                                                           24               14            3

Orthotrichum rupestre                                                          1                 1               0

Orthotrichum sprucei                                                            6                 3               0

Orthotrichum striatum                                                          34               51            6

Orthotrichum tenellum                                                          65               24            3

Oxyrrhynchium hians                                                            397             202          5

Oxyrrhynchium pumilum                                                      329             192          2

Oxyrrhynchium speciosum                                                   27               32            7

Palustriella commutata                                                        3                 2               6

Palustriella falcata                                                               0                 2               2

Pellia endiviifolia                                                                  151             182          3

Pellia epiphylla                                                                      284             239          2

Pellia neesiana                                                                       40               59            2

Petalophyllum ralfsii                                                            8                 4               10

Phaeoceros carolinianus                                                     0                 1               0

Phaeoceros laevis s. l. ADDITIONAL                               1                 25            7

Phaeoceros laevis s. str.                                                        79               105          0

Phascum cuspidatum ADDITIONAL                                 121             94            6

Phascum cuspidatum var. cuspidatum                               39               0               0

Phascum cuspidatum var. papillosum                               30               0               0

Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum                                   2                 9               1

Philonotis arnellii                                                                 9                 9               1

Philonotis caespitosa                                                            6                 19            7

Philonotis calcarea                                                               0                 1               1

Philonotis fontana                                                                 95               105          5

Philonotis rigida                                                                    3                 7               6

Physcomitrium pyriforme                                                     58               78            16

Plagiochila asplenioides                                                     83               111          4

Plagiochila bifaria                                                                13               14            6

Plagiochila porelloides                                                        114             120          2

Plagiochila punctata                                                            8                 20            6

Plagiochila spinulosa s. l. ADDITIONAL                        1                 40            9

Plagiochila spinulosa s. str.                                                19               5               1

Plagiomnium affine                                                               51               31            1

Plagiomnium cuspidatum                                                     1                 6               6

Plagiomnium ellipticum                                                       1                 1               0

Plagiomnium rostratum                                                        0                 7               2

Plagiomnium undulatum                                                      378             228          3

Plagiopus oederianus                                                           0                 0               1

Plagiothecium cavifolium                                                    2                 0               0

Plagiothecium curvifolium                                                  1                 0               0

Plagiothecium denticulatum var. denticulatum              120             85            5

Plagiothecium denticulatum var. obtusifolium               2                 1               2

Plagiothecium latebricola                                                   2                 1               0

Plagiothecium nemorale                                                      263             177          5

Plagiothecium succulentum                                                 280             178          3

Plagiothecium undulatum                                                    54               63            14

Platyhypnidium lusitanicum                                                14               20            2

Platyhypnidium riparioides                                                 267             222          3

Pleuridium acuminatum                                                       151             130          7

Pleuridium subulatum                                                           49               44            5

Pleurochaete squarrosa                                                       24               29            6

Pleurozium schreberi                                                            90               102          3

Pogonatum aloides                                                                227             250          6

Pogonatum aloides var. minimum                                      11               1               2

Pogonatum nanum                                                                 14               22            9

Pogonatum urnigerum                                                          85               86            12

Pohlia andalusica                                                                 41               7               0

Pohlia annotina s. l.                                                              0                 132          0

Pohlia annotina s. str.                                                           196             22            3

Pohlia bulbifera                                                                     3                 5               0

Pohlia camptotrachela                                                         29               15            0

Pohlia drummondii                                                                9                 10            0

Pohlia elongata var. elongata                                            0                 1               0

Pohlia filum                                                                            6                 0               0

Pohlia flexuosa                                                                      9                 1               0

Pohlia lescuriana                                                                  5                 0               0

Pohlia lutescens                                                                     36               11            0

Pohlia melanodon                                                                 129             157          5

Pohlia nutans                                                                         116             117          4

Pohlia wahlenbergii var. calcarea                                    1                 2               4

Pohlia wahlenbergii var. wahlenbergii                            71               114          3

Polytrichastrum alpinum                                                      2                 2               2

Polytrichastrum formosum                                                   303             177          4

Polytrichastrum longisetum                                                 1                 0               3

Polytrichum commune var. commune                                 108             79            7

Polytrichum commune var. humile                                     1                 2               0

Polytrichum commune var. perigoniale                            3                 0               0

Polytrichum juniperinum                                                     310             199          6

Polytrichum piliferum                                                           151             120          5

Polytrichum strictum                                                             15               10            0

Porella arboris-vitae                                                             9                 14            4

Porella cordaeana                                                                 0                 1               0

Porella obtusata                                                                    8                 19            15

Porella pinnata                                                                      6                 8               0

Porella platyphylla                                                               3                 20            6

Pottiopsis caespitosa                                                            0                 1               1

Pseudephemerum nitidum                                                    140             113          6

Pseudocalliergon lycopodioides                                        3                 6               2

Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum                                222             61            4

Pseudocrossidium revolutum                                               51               50            10

Pseudoscleropodium purum                                                436             290          11

Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans                                                 328             209          4

Pterogonium gracile                                                             12               20            10

Ptilidium ciliare                                                                     10               5               1

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum                                                 101             128          5

Racomitrium aciculare                                                         91               90            3

Racomitrium aquaticum                                                       10               41            9

Racomitrium canescens s. l. ADDITIONAL                      0                 50            21

Racomitrium elongatum                                                       0                 1               0

Racomitrium ericoides                                                          33               4               1

Racomitrium fasciculare                                                      28               52            19

Racomitrium heterostichum s. l. ADDITIONAL              8                 81            9

Racomitrium heterostichum s. str.                                       126             4               3

Racomitrium lanuginosum                                                   65               89            13

Radula complanata s. l. ADDITIONAL                            25               0               0

Radula complanata s. str.                                                     102             119          5

Radula lindenbergiana                                                        10               11            3

Reboulia hemisphaerica                                                       1                 7               6

Rhabdoweisia crispata                                                         2                 5               2

Rhabdoweisia fugax                                                              3                 14            3

Rhizomnium punctatum                                                        256             203          4

Rhodobryum roseum                                                              0                 5               10

Rhynchostegiella curviseta                                                  0                 1               0

Rhynchostegiella litorea                                                      1                 0               0

Rhynchostegiella tenella                                                      246             147          4

Rhynchostegiella teneriffae                                                 2                 5               1

Rhynchostegium confertum                                                  531             249          4

Rhynchostegium megapolitanum                                        32               58            7

Rhynchostegium murale                                                       15               3               3

Rhytidiadelphus loreus                                                         120             100          8

Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus                                                494             249          9

Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus                                                  172             129          5

Riccardia chamedryfolia                                                      71               105          4

Riccardia incurvata                                                              1                 3               0

Riccardia latifrons                                                                10               20            0

Riccardia multifida                                                               26               54            10

Riccardia palmata                                                                 3                 0               0

Riccia beyrichiana                                                                11               24            9

Riccia bifurca                                                                         4                 7               0

Riccia cavernosa                                                                    1                 1               0

Riccia crozalsii                                                                       21               69            3

Riccia crystallina                                                                   18               7               1

Riccia glauca                                                                          44               92            3                   

Riccia huebeneriana                                                             0                 1               0

Riccia nigrella                                                                        6                 9               2

Riccia rhenana                                                                       1                 0               0

Riccia sorocarpa                                                                    80               114          3

Riccia subbifurca                                                                   52               16            0                   

Saccogyna viticulosa                                                            68               142          5

Sanionia uncinata                                                                 15               26            12

Sarmentypnum exannulatum                                               34               47            15

Sarmentypnum sarmentosum                                               3                 6               15

Scapania compacta                                                               137             171          4

Scapania curta                                                                       1                 1               0

Scapania gracilis                                                                   59               61            8

Scapania irrigua                                                                    65               61            8

Scapania nemorea                                                                 44               52            12

Scapania paludicola                                                             0                 1               0

Scapania scandica                                                                4                 9               0

Scapania subalpina                                                              0                 2               0

Scapania umbrosa                                                                 1                 4               0

Scapania undulata                                                                103             114          11

Schistidium apocarpum s. l. ADDITIONAL                     172             122          3

Schistidium apocarpum s. str.                                              26               0               0

Schistidium crassipilum                                                        193             1               1

Schistidium maritimum                                                         82               104          19

Schistidium rivulare                                                              11               9               3

Schistostega pennata                                                            56               55            19

Sciuro-hypnum plumosum                                                    163             147          2

Sciuro-hypnum populeum                                                    216             106          3

Scleropodium cespitans                                                        27               10            1

Scleropodium touretii                                                           109             103          14

Scopelophila cataractae                                                      13               0               0

Scorpidium cossonii                                                              2                 1               0

Scorpidium revolvens s. l. ADDITIONAL                         0                 10            12

Scorpidium revolvens s. str.                                                 3                 2               1

Scorpidium scorpioides                                                        6                 12            15

Scorpiurium circinatum                                                        41               41            12

Sematophyllum substrumulosum                                         14               0               0

Solenostoma caespiticium                                                    0                 1               0

Solenostoma gracillimum                                                     166             154          4

Solenostoma hyalinum                                                          5                 22            2

Solenostoma subellipticum                                                  0                 1               0

Southbya tophacea                                                                2                 4               1

Sphaerocarpos michelii                                                        8                 4               0

Sphaerocarpos sp.                                                                 6                 2               0

Sphaerocarpos texanus                                                        8                 5               0

Sphagnum capillifolium                                                       39               35            21

Sphagnum compactum                                                          18               29            6

Sphagnum cuspidatum                                                          39               35            10

Sphagnum denticulatum s. l. ADDITIONAL                    1                 7               0

Sphagnum denticulatum s. str.                                            117             109          6

Sphagnum fallax                                                                    42               3               2

Sphagnum fimbriatum                                                           17               24            5

Sphagnum flexuosum                                                            0                 0               1

Sphagnum inundatum                                                           27               54            12

Sphagnum magellanicum                                                     1                 1               0

Sphagnum molle                                                                     0                 1               0

Sphagnum palustre var. palustre                                        49               54            13

Sphagnum papillosum                                                          48               53            11

Sphagnum quinquefarium                                                    2                 8               1

Sphagnum recurvum s. l. ADDITIONAL                           0                 36            5

Sphagnum squarrosum                                                         11               19            6

Sphagnum subnitens var. subnitens                                   77               93            9

Sphagnum tenellum                                                               34               38            10

Splachnum ampullaceum                                                     0                 14            5

Straminergon stramineum                                                    22               30            8

Syntrichia laevipila                                                               118             79            12

Syntrichia latifolia                                                                16               12            1

Syntrichia montana                                                               119             43            5

Syntrichia papillosa                                                              14               4               3

Syntrichia ruralis var. ruraliformis                                    52               40            10

Syntrichia ruralis var. ruralis                                             45               22            6

Targionia hypophylla                                                           1                 1               1

Telaranea europaea                                                              1                 1               1

Telaranea murphyae                                                             2                 1               0

Tetraphis pellucida                                                               24               34            11

Thamnobryum alopecurum                                                  330             193          5

Thuidium delicatulum                                                           20               21            0

Thuidium tamariscinum                                                        400             273          4

Tortella flavovirens                                                               136             92            7

Tortella nitida                                                                        55               37            13

Tortella tortuosa                                                                    5                 9               1

Tortula atrovirens                                                                  27               39            14

Tortula canescens                                                                  5                 17            1

Tortula cuneifolia                                                                  3                 4               11

Tortula lanceola                                                                    1                 2               2

Tortula marginata                                                                 2                 1               0

Tortula modica                                                                       9                 4               8

Tortula muralis                                                                       539             277          4

Tortula protobryoides                                                           1                 0               0

Tortula solmsii                                                                        6                 5               0

Tortula subulata                                                                    0                 0               3

Tortula truncata                                                                     390             225          3

Tortula viridifolia                                                                  61               81            28

Tortula wilsonii                                                                      7                 22            13

Trichocolea tomentella                                                         13               26            6

Trichodon cylindricus                                                           263             93            1                   

Trichostomum brachydontium                                             245             205          16

Trichostomum crispulum                                                      63               52            8

Trichostomum tenuirostre                                                    15               14            2

Tritomaria exsectiformis                                                       8                 11            1

Tritomaria quinquedentata                                                 1                 0               0

Ulota bruchii                                                                          374             210          1

Ulota calvescens                                                                    2                 0               0

Ulota crispa s. l. ADDITIONAL                                          66               36            6

Ulota crispa s. str.                                                                  196             160          5

Ulota hutchinsiae                                                                  0                 0               3

Ulota phyllantha                                                                    503             267          5

Warnstorfia fluitans                                                              8                 35            13

Weissia brachycarpa var. brachycarpa                            6                 7               0

Weissia brachycarpa var. obliqua                                     50               42            5

Weissia controversa var. controversa                                240             208          4

Weissia controversa var. crispata                                      1                 1               0

Weissia controversa var. densifolia                                   32               25            6

Weissia longifolia var. angustifolia                                  2                 2               0

Weissia longifolia var. longifolia                                      2                 8               0

Weissia multicapsularis                                                        4                 12            0

Weissia perssonii                                                                   25               25            1

Weissia rutilans                                                                      9                 44            3

Zygodon conoideus var. conoideus                                    235             61            5

Zygodon rupestris                                                                  3                 8               0

Zygodon viridissimus var. stirtonii                                     109             42            2

Zygodon viridissimus var. viridissimus                              411             214          3

 

TOTALS (overall total 85,060)                                         48,532       33,943    2585

 

TABLE 5. Change indexes for bryophytes of Cornwall and Isles of Scilly (see text). Rare taxa (fewer than 10 Recent and Old records) are listed in the lower part of the table.

 

Taxa are given in ascending order of Change index, then descending order of count of Old records. Change indexes marked are thought to be misleading because of differences in recording activity (see species accounts). The habitat code letters following the taxon name correspond to the groups of species discussed in the text.

 

Taxon name   Habitat code                                     Recent     Old          Change           Change index

                                                                                                                           index                   (rare taxa)

 

Splachnum ampullaceum                                          0               14             -100.00

Jungermannia pumila   L                                          3               21             -90.01                       

Porella platyphylla   K                                              3               20             -89.51                     

Bryum archangelicum   K                                          7               45             -89.12                       

Frullania teneriffae   F                                              3               17             -87.66                       

Drepanocladus sendtneri   I                                     2               10             -86.01                       

Weissia rutilans                                                          9               44             -85.69                       

Leiocolea turbinata   K                                             6               29             -85.53                       

Breutelia chrysocoma   I                                           6               28             -85.01                       

Rhabdoweisia fugax   F                                             3               14             -85.01                       

Solenostoma hyalinum   L                                         5               22             -84.10                       

Warnstorfia fluitans   H                                            8               35             -84.01                       

Racomitrium aquaticum   F                                       10             41             -82.94                       

Hygroamblystegium fluviatile   J                             11             45             -82.90                       

Ditrichum subulatum   L                                            5               20             -82.52                     

Hennediella stanfordensis                                        3               12             -82.52                     

Cladopodiella francisci   L                                      4               15             -81.35                       

Fissidens crassipes   J                                                5               17             -79.43                       

Tortula canescens   B                                                 5               17             -79.43                       

Riccia crozalsii   B                                                     21             69             -78.71                       

Fissidens osmundoides   K                                        4               13             -78.48                       

Anthoceros agrestis   A                                              5               16             -78.14                       

Philonotis caespitosa   I                                            6               19             -77.91                       

Tortula wilsonii   B                                                    7               22             -77.75                       

Diplophyllum obtusifolium   L                                 4               12             -76.69                       

Weissia multicapsularis                                            4               12             -76.69                       

Cephalozia lunulifolia   L                                        11             33             -76.69                       

Metzgeria conjugata   F                                            5               15             -76.69                       

Anthoceros punctatus   A                                          39             109          -74.98                       

Hennediella heimii                                                     14             39             -74.89                     

Scorpidium revolvens s. l. ALL DATA   I               5               13             -73.10                       

Dicranum bonjeanii   I                                              13             33             -72.45                       

Anomodon viticulosus   G                                         15             38             -72.39                       

Plagiochila punctata   F                                           8               20             -72.02                       

Entosthodon fascicularis   A                                    22             53             -70.97                       

Cynodontium bruntonii   F                                       8               19             -70.55                       

Porella obtusata   K                                                   8               19             -70.55

Bazzania trilobata   L                                                9               21             -70.03                       

Microbryum starckeanum   B                                   13             29             -68.65                       

Bartramia pomiformis   L                                          22             49             -68.60                       

Frullania microphylla var. microphylla   F           19             42             -68.36                       

Riccia beyrichiana                                                     11             24             -67.94                       

Barbilophozia attenuata   F                                     7               15             -67.36                       

Campylopus brevipilus   L                                        23             49             -67.17                       

Marchesinia mackaii   K                                           8               17             -67.09                       

Riccia glauca   A                                                        44             92             -66.55                       

Saccogyna viticulosa   L                                           68             142          -66.51                       

Riccardia multifida   H                                              26             54             -66.33                       

Sphagnum inundatum   H                                         27             54             -65.03                       

Fossombronia angulosa   B                                      13             26             -65.03                       

Trichocolea tomentella   D                                       13             26             -65.03                       

Riccardia latifrons   H                                               10             20             -65.03                       

Cladopodiella fluitans   H                                        7               14             -65.03                       

Scorpidium scorpioides   I                                        6               12             -65.03                       

Campylopus atrovirens var. atrovirens   H           11             21             -63.36                       

Bryum pallens   K                                                        43             81             -62.87                       

Amphidium mougeotii   K                                          8               15             -62.70                       

Blasia pusilla   L                                                         15             28             -62.53                       

Racomitrium fasciculare   F                                      28             52             -62.34                       

Rhynchostegium megapolitanum   C                      32             58             -61.41                       

Dicranum scottianum   F                                           10             18             -61.14                       

Fissidens polyphyllus   J                                            10             18             -61.14                       

Plagiochila spinulosa s. l. ALL DATA   F             33             59             -60.88                       

Dicranum majus   D                                                    52             92             -60.47                       

Cephaloziella turneri   L                                           8               14             -60.03                       

Sanionia uncinata                                                      15             26             -59.65                       

Sphagnum squarrosum   H                                        11             19             -59.51                       

Lophozia excisa   L                                                     32             55             -59.31                       

Dichodontium pellucidum s. l. ALL DATA           23             39             -58.75                       

Racomitrium canescens s. l. ALL DATA   L          33             55             -58.04                       

Pterogonium gracile                                                  12             20             -58.04                       

Ctenidium molluscum ALL DATA                          52             86             -57.71                       

Entosthodon attenuatus                                            17             28             -57.54                       

Diphyscium foliosum   L                                            28             46             -57.43                       

Eucladium verticillatum   K                                      28             46             -57.43                       

Phaeoceros laevis s. l. ALL DATA                          80             131          -57.29                       

Bryum algovicum var. rutheanum   C                     13             21             -56.70                       

Sphagnum compactum   H                                        18             29             -56.59                       

Pohlia wahlenbergii var. wahlenbergii                 71             114          -56.44                       

Pogonatum nanum   L                                                14             22             -55.49                       

Ditrichum heteromallum   L                                      37             58             -55.38                       

Fossombronia pusilla s. l. ALL DATA   L             91             142          -55.18                       

Campylium stellatum   I                                             43             67             -55.11                       

Porella arboris-vitae   K                                           9               14             -55.04                       

Orthotrichum striatum   E                                         34             51             -53.37                       

Fossombronia wondraczekii   L                               32             48             -53.37                       

Riccardia chamedryfolia                                          71             105          -52.71                       

Pellia neesiana   H                                                     40             59             -52.58                       

Tortula atrovirens   B                                                27             39             -51.58                       

Campyliadelphus chrysophyllus   C                       9               13             -51.58                       

Calypogeia muelleriana   L                                      41             59             -51.40                       

Platyhypnidium lusitanicum   J                                14             20             -51.04                       

Riccia sorocarpa                                                        80             114          -50.92                       

Tetraphis pellucida   L                                              24             34             -50.63                       

Sphagnum fimbriatum   H                                         17             24             -50.46                       

Chiloscyphus pallescens   I                                      32             45             -50.26                       

Frullania fragilifolia   F                                           15             21             -50.04                       

Kurzia sylvatica   L                                                    13             18             -49.49                       

Sarmentypnum exannulatum   H                              34             47             -49.41                       

Dicranella subulata   L                                             8               11             -49.13                       

Tritomaria exsectiformis   L                                      8               11             -49.13                       

Cephaloziella divaricata   L                                    102           140          -49.04                       

Racomitrium lanuginosum   L                                  65             89             -48.92                       

Straminergon stramineum   H                                  22             30             -48.71                       

Physcomitrium pyriforme                                          58             78             -47.99                       

Frullania tamarisci   L                                              185           248          -47.83                       

Plagiochila asplenioides   L                                    83             111          -47.70                       

Lepidozia reptans   L                                                 57             76             -47.55                       

Encalypta streptocarpa   G                                       15             20             -47.55                       

Microbryum davallianum   K                                   27             36             -47.55                       

Tortula viridifolia   B                                                61             81             -47.33                       

Campylopus pilifer   B                                               14             18             -45.60                       

Cephaloziella hampeana                                          55             70             -45.05                       

Schistidium maritimum                                              82             104          -44.86                       

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum   F                                101           128          -44.81                       

Fissidens incurvus   K                                                42             53             -44.58                       

Chiloscyphus polyanthos s. str.   J                           92             115          -44.05                       

Scapania compacta   L                                              137           171          -43.97                       

Heterocladium heteropterum s. l. ALL DATA F   77             95             -43.31                       

Kurzia pauciflora s. str.   H                                      22             27             -43.01                       

Pohlia melanodon   K                                                129           157          -42.53                       

Ditrichum flexicaule s. l. ALL DATA   C               14             17             -42.40                       

Bryum alpinum                                                            57             69             -42.22                       

Pleurochaete squarrosa   C                                      24             29             -42.12                       

Sphagnum subnitens var. subnitens   H                 77             93             -42.09                       

Pellia endiviifolia   I                                                  151           182          -41.97                       

Cinclidotus fontinaloides   J                                    20             24             -41.72                       

Nardia scalaris   L                                                      131           157          -41.64                       

Cephalozia connivens   H                                         26             31             -41.34                       

Fossombronia caespitiformis & husnotii ALL B 43             51             -41.03                       

Oxyrrhynchium speciosum                                        27             32             -40.99                       

Scapania nemorea   L                                                44             52             -40.82                       

Leucobryum glaucum s. l. ALL DATA   L              73             86             -40.63                       

Plagiothecium undulatum   D                                  54             63             -40.05                       

Hylocomium splendens   L                                        90             104          -39.48                       

Leptobryum pyriforme                                               20             23             -39.18                       

Aloina aloides s. l. ALL DATA   K                          48             55             -38.96                       

Aneura pinguis                                                            91             104          -38.80                       

Hedwigia ciliata s. l. ALL DATA   F                       50             57             -38.65                       

Pleurozium schreberi   L                                           90             102          -38.29                       

Calliergon cordifolium   L                                        25             28             -37.55                       

Sphagnum tenellum   H                                             34             38             -37.42                       

Fontinalis antipyretica var. antipyretica   J         72             80             -37.05                       

Scapania undulata   J                                                103           114          -36.81                       

Philonotis fontana   I                                                 95             105          -36.72                       

Sphagnum papillosum   H                                         48             53             -36.66                       

Sphagnum palustre var. palustre   H                      49             54             -36.54                       

Pogonatum aloides   L                                               227           250          -36.49                       

Radula lindenbergiana   K                                       10             11             -36.42                       

Lejeunea cavifolia   K                                                61             67             -36.32                       

Fissidens adianthoides   K                                        73             79             -35.37                       

Entosthodon obtusus   B                                           52             56             -35.06                       

Homalia trichomanoides                                           102           109          -34.55                       

Marchantia polymorpha ALL DATA                     18             19             -33.74                       

Plagiochila porelloides   L                                       114           120          -33.56                       

Thuidium delicatulum   L                                          20             21             -33.39                       

Aulacomnium palustre   H                                        65             68             -33.15                       

Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum   K  24             25             -32.86                       

Fissidens dubius   K                                                   80             83             -32.59                       

Scapania gracilis   F                                                  59             61             -32.35                       

Fissidens viridulus s. l. ALL DATA   K                  200           205          -31.77                       

Fontinalis squamosa ALL DATA   J                       58             59             -31.25                       

Bryum sauteri                                                              62             63             -31.17                       

Pogonatum urnigerum   L                                         85             86             -30.87                       

Cirriphyllum piliferum   D                                        88             89             -30.85                       

Pohlia nutans   L                                                        116           117          -30.66                       

Cephalozia bicuspidata   L                                      251           251          -30.06                       

Scorpiurium circinatum   C                                      41             41             -30.06                       

Calliergonella lindbergii   L                                    35             35             -30.06                       

Leucodon sciuroides var. sciuroides   E                 10             10             -30.06                       

Weissia perssonii   B                                                  25             25             -30.06                       

Ephemerum serratum s. str.                                       21             21             -30.06                       

Dicranella rufescens   L                                            54             54             -30.06                       

Brachytheciastrum velutinum   K                            17             17             -30.06                       

Racomitrium aciculare   J                                         91             90             -29.28                       

Marsupella emarginata var. emarginata   F         66             65             -28.98                       

Schistostega pennata   L                                           56             55             -28.79                       

Pseudocrossidium revolutum   G                             51             50             -28.66                       

Microbryum rectum   B                                              48             47             -28.57                       

Leskea polycarpa   J                                                   32             31             -27.80                       

Conocephalum conicum s. l. ALL DATA   L         219           212          -27.75                       

Campylopus fragilis   L                                             130           125          -27.26                       

Radula complanata s. l. ALL DATA   E                 137           130          -26.29                       

Lophozia bicrenata   L                                              39             37             -26.28                       

Scleropodium touretii   B                                          109           103          -25.99                       

Diplophyllum albicans   L                                        296           279          -25.80                       

Fissidens celticus   L                                                  52             49             -25.78                       

Scapania irrigua                                                        65             61             -25.47                       

Trichostomum tenuirostre   J                                    15             14             -25.06                       

Sphagnum denticulatum s. str.   H                           117           109          -24.93                       

Solenostoma gracillimum   M                                  166           154          -24.61                       

Calypogeia fissa   L                                                   289           262          -22.85                       

Sciuro-hypnum plumosum   J                                    163           147          -22.45                       

Bryum pseudotriquetrum ALL DATA                     111           100          -22.37                       

Pleuridium subulatum                                               49             44             -22.11                       

Sphagnum capillifolium   H                                     39             35             -22.07                       

Sphagnum cuspidatum   H                                        39             35             -22.07                       

Lejeunea lamacerina   L                                            248           222          -21.87                       

Gymnocolea inflata   M                                             96             85             -21.01                       

Lophozia ventricosa   L                                             95             84             -20.90                       

Drepanocladus aduncus   I                                       43             38             -20.86                       

Hyocomium armoricum   J                                         50             44             -20.52                       

Orthotrichum lyellii   E                                              24             21             -20.07                       

Bryum subapiculatum   L                                          86             75             -19.80                       

Weissia controversa var. controversa                    240           208          -19.30                       

Fissidens exilis                                                            30             26             -19.30                       

Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum   G                 170           147          -19.12                       

Pleuridium acuminatum                                            151           130          -18.76                       

Isothecium alopecuroides   D                                   140           120          -18.40                       

Loeskeobryum brevirostre   D                                   35             30             -18.40                       

Acaulon muticum s. l. ALL DATA   B                     20             17             -17.72                       

Pellia epiphylla   L                                                     284           239          -16.89                       

Weissia brachycarpa var. obliqua   K                    50             42             -16.74                       

Andreaea rothii ALL DATA   F                               43             36             -16.46                       

Trichostomum brachydontium   K                           245           205          -16.41                       

Rhytidiadelphus loreus   L                                        120           100          -16.07                       

Sphagnum recurvum s. l. ALL DATA   H               42             35             -16.07                       

Nowellia curvifolia                                                    18             15             -16.07                       

Archidium alternifolium   L                                      143           119          -15.95                       

Platyhypnidium riparioides   J                                 267           222          -15.88                       

Trichostomum crispulum   K                                     63             52             -15.27                       

Blindia acuta                                                               11             9               -14.52                       

Schistidium rivulare   J                                              11             9               -14.52                       

Ulota crispa s. str.   E                                                 196           160          -14.32                       

Cirriphyllum crassinervium   K                                37             30             -13.74                       

Epipterygium tozeri                                                    181           146          -13.29                       

Hygrohypnum ochraceum   J                                    62             50             -13.27                       

Funaria hygrometrica                                               257           206          -12.74                       

Neckera pumila   E                                                     206           164          -12.15                       

Polytrichum piliferum   L                                          151           120          -11.99                       

Hookeria lucens   D                                                    219           174          -11.97                       

Rhizomnium punctatum                                             256           203          -11.80                       

Lophozia incisa   H                                                    33             26             -11.23                       

Lophocolea heterophylla   L                                    216           170          -11.14                       

Weissia controversa var. densifolia   M                 32             25             -10.48                       

Campylopus pyriformis   L                                        94             73             -9.94                          

Brachythecium albicans   L                                      146           113          -9.64                          

Brachythecium rivulare                                             307           237          -9.40                          

Syntrichia ruralis var. ruraliformis   C                  52             40             -9.08                          

Homalothecium lutescens   C                                   43             33             -8.87                          

Cephaloziella stellulifera   M                                  90             68             -7.43                          

Didymodon fallax   K                                                 117           88             -7.01                          

Aphanorrhegma patens                                             20             15             -6.75                          

Syntrichia latifolia   J                                                16             12             -6.75                          

Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus   D                                 172           129          -6.75                          

Polytrichum commune var. commune   H               108           79             -4.39                          

Dicranum scoparium                                                  378           275          -3.86                          

Neckera complanata                                                  267           192          -2.74                          

Plagiothecium denticulatum var. denticulatum L 120          85           -1.26       

Calypogeia arguta   L                                               298           211          -1.22                          

Odontoschisma sphagni   H                                      37             26             -0.47                          

Hypnum jutlandicum   L                                            363           254          -0.05                          

Eurhynchium striatum   D                                         337           234          0.73                           

Thuidium tamariscinum   D                                       400           273          2.48                           

Tortella flavovirens   K                                              136           92             3.39                           

Plagiothecium nemorale                                           263           177          3.92                           

Tortella nitida   G                                                       55             37             3.96                           

Campylopus flexuosus   L                                         171           115          4.00                           

Syntrichia laevipila   E                                              118           79             4.47                           

Polytrichum strictum   H                                           15             10             4.91                           

Cephaloziella massalongi s. l. ALL DATA   M    57             38             4.91                           

Pseudoscleropodium purum                                     436           290          5.15                           

Microlejeunea ulicina   E                                         257           167          7.63                           

Lophocolea fragrans                                                 14             9               8.80                           

Polytrichum juniperinum   L                                    310           199          8.95                           

Fissidens bryoides var. bryoides                             453           290          9.25                           

Mnium hornum   D                                                      505           323          9.35                           

Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans   L                                328           209          9.76                           

Bryum klinggraeffii   A                                              22             14             9.91                           

Plagiothecium succulentum   D                               280           178          10.02                         

Frullania dilatata                                                      539           342          10.23                         

Racomitrium heterostichum s. l. ALL DATA   F   134           85             10.26                         

Metzgeria furcata                                                       510           322          10.77                         

Dicranoweisia cirrata   F                                          113           71             11.31                         

Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum                  260           161          12.95                         

Brachythecium mildeanum                                       42             26             12.98                         

Pseudephemerum nitidum                                         140           113          13.35                         

Homalothecium sericeum   K                                    396           244          13.51                         

Plagiomnium affine                                                    51             31             15.06                         

Pohlia annotina s. l. ALL DATA   L                       292           177          15.38                         

Plagiomnium undulatum                                           378           228          15.95                         

Cratoneuron filicinum   K                                         315           190          15.95                         

Ceratodon purpureus   K                                          506           305          16.03                         

Lophocolea bidentata                                               521           314          16.05                         

Atrichum undulatum                                                  470           283          16.15                         

Rhynchostegiella tenella   G                                    246           147          17.04                         

Fissidens taxifolius var. taxifolius   K                    386           229          17.89                         

Lunularia cruciata                                                     354           209          18.46                         

Thamnobryum alopecurum                                       330           193          19.59                         

Polytrichastrum formosum   D                                  303           177          19.73                         

Oxyrrhynchium pumilum                                           329           192          19.85                         

Orthotrichum rivulare   J                                           24             14             19.90                         

Calliergonella cuspidata   K                                    518           300          20.76                         

Kindbergia praelonga                                               647           374          20.99                         

Tortula truncata   A                                                   390           225          21.23                         

Mylia anomala   H                                                      21             12             22.40                         

Oligotrichum hercynicum   L                                    14             8               22.40                         

Fissidens bryoides var. caespitans   J                     151           86             22.80                         

Leptodictyum riparium   J                                         89             50             24.49                         

Ulota bruchii   E                                                         374           210          24.56                         

Brachythecium rutabulum                                        609           341          24.91                         

Didymodon tophaceus   K                                         290           161          25.98                         

Isothecium myosuroides var. myosuroides             495           271          27.75                         

Ulota crispa s. l. ADDITIONAL DATA   E            66             36             28.22                         

Metzgeria fruticulosa s. l. ALL DATA   E              565           305          29.56                         

Ulota phyllantha                                                        503           267          31.76                         

Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum               583           309          31.96                         

Barbula unguiculata                                                 454           239          32.86                         

Amblystegium serpens var. salinum   C                  23             12             34.05                         

Zygodon viridissimus var. viridissimus                  411           214          34.32                         

Tortula muralis   G                                                     539           277          36.09                         

Oxyrrhynchium hians   K                                           397           202          37.46                         

Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus                                     494           249          38.76                         

Ptilidium ciliare   L                                                    10             5               39.88                         

Hygroamblystegium tenax   J                                    14             7               39.88                         

Bryum rubens   A                                                         317           158          40.32                         

Orthotrichum anomalum   G                                     115           57             41.11                         

Phascum cuspidatum ALL DATA   A                     190           94             41.37                         

Bryum dichotomum                                                     514           254          41.53                         

Bryum argenteum                                                        392           193          42.05                         

Sciuro-hypnum populeum   J                                    216           106          42.52                         

Syntrichia ruralis var. ruralis   K                            45             22             43.06                         

Grimmia trichophylla s. l. ALL DATA   F              306           147          45.59                         

Barbula convoluta ALL DATA   K                         1099        518          48.39                         

Rhynchostegium confertum   K                                531           249          49.15                         

Grimmia pulvinata   G                                               299           138          51.54                         

Bryum capillare   K                                                    585           269          52.10                         

Cryphaea heteromalla   E                                         391           178          53.63                         

Fossombronia incurva   B                                         18             8               57.37                      

Amblystegium serpens var. serpens   K                   511           223          60.27                         

Bryum donianum   K                                                   108           47             60.71                         

Didymodon insulanus                                                562           244          61.09                         

Hymenostylium recurvirostrum s. str.   M               21             9               63.19                         

Dicranella varia                                                         280           118          65.96                         

Dicranella schreberiana   A                                     147           61             68.54                         

Orthotrichum pulchellum   E                                    225           93             69.21                         

Orthodontium lineare                                                22             9               70.96                         

Dicranella heteromalla   D                                       450           178          76.81                         

Gymnostomum calcareum s